Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design by Wei Tong

By Wei Tong

Basic of wind power / Wei Tong -- Wind source and placement review / Wiebke Langreder -- Aerodynamics and aeroelastics of wind generators / Alois P. Schaffarczyk -- Structural dynamics of wind generators / Spyros G. Voutsinas -- Wind turbine acoustics / Robert Z. Szasz & Laszlo Fuchs -- layout and improvement of megawatt wind generators / Lawrence D. Willey -- layout and improvement of small wind generators / Lawrence Staudt -- improvement and research of vertical-axis wind generators / Paul Cooper -- Direct force superconducting wind turbines / Clive Lewis -- clever wind energy unit with tandem wind rotors / Toshiaki Kanemoto & Koichi Kubo -- Offshore wind turbine layout / Danian Zheng & Sumir Bose -- New small turbine applied sciences / Hikaru Matsumiya -- Blade fabrics, trying out equipment and structural layout / Bent F. SГёrensten ... [et al.] -- Implementation of the 'smart' rotor suggestion / Anton W. Hulskamp & Harald E.N. Bersee -- Optimized gearbox layout / Ray Hicks -- Tower layout and research / Biswajit Basu -- layout of aid constructions for offshore wind generators / J. van der Tempel ... [et al.] -- strength curves for wind generators / Patrick Milan ... [et al.] -- Wind turbine cooling applied sciences / Yanglong Jiang -- Wind turbine noise measurements and abatement tools / Panagiota Pantazopoulou -- Wind power garage applied sciences / Martin Leahy, David Connolly & Noel Buckley

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By Wei Tong

Basic of wind power / Wei Tong -- Wind source and placement review / Wiebke Langreder -- Aerodynamics and aeroelastics of wind generators / Alois P. Schaffarczyk -- Structural dynamics of wind generators / Spyros G. Voutsinas -- Wind turbine acoustics / Robert Z. Szasz & Laszlo Fuchs -- layout and improvement of megawatt wind generators / Lawrence D. Willey -- layout and improvement of small wind generators / Lawrence Staudt -- improvement and research of vertical-axis wind generators / Paul Cooper -- Direct force superconducting wind turbines / Clive Lewis -- clever wind energy unit with tandem wind rotors / Toshiaki Kanemoto & Koichi Kubo -- Offshore wind turbine layout / Danian Zheng & Sumir Bose -- New small turbine applied sciences / Hikaru Matsumiya -- Blade fabrics, trying out equipment and structural layout / Bent F. SГёrensten ... [et al.] -- Implementation of the 'smart' rotor suggestion / Anton W. Hulskamp & Harald E.N. Bersee -- Optimized gearbox layout / Ray Hicks -- Tower layout and research / Biswajit Basu -- layout of aid constructions for offshore wind generators / J. van der Tempel ... [et al.] -- strength curves for wind generators / Patrick Milan ... [et al.] -- Wind turbine cooling applied sciences / Yanglong Jiang -- Wind turbine noise measurements and abatement tools / Panagiota Pantazopoulou -- Wind power garage applied sciences / Martin Leahy, David Connolly & Noel Buckley

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Because the wind power output is proportional to the cubic power of the mean wind speed, a small variation in wind speed can result in a large change in wind power. 1 Blade swept area As shown in Fig. 3, the blade swept area can be calculated from the formula: A = p ⎡(l + r ) − r 2 ⎤ = p l (l + 2r ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 (5) 10 Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design A u Figure 3: Swept area of wind turbine blades. where l is the length of wind blades and r is the radius of the hub. Thus, by doubling the length of wind blades, the swept area can be increased by the factor up to 4.

As shown in Fig. 11, the hydraulic pitch control system uses a hydraulic actuator to drive the blade rotating with respect to its axial centreline. The most significant advantages of hydraulic pitch control system include its large driving power, lack of a gearbox, and robust backup power. Due to these advantages, hydraulic pitch control systems historically dominate wind turbine control in Europe and North America for many years. Blade Hydraulic Actuator Control System Pump Oil Tank Figure 11: Hydraulic pitch control system.

Assume that dT/ dz = c, it can be derived that ⎛T⎞ p = p0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 ⎠ − g / cR (10) where p0 and T0 are the air pressure and temperature at the ground, respectively. Combining eqns (6) and (10), it gives ⎛T⎞ r = r0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 ⎠ − ( g / cR +1) ⎛ cz ⎞ = r0 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎝ T0 ⎠ − ( g / cR +1) (11) This equation indicates that the density of air decreases nonlinearly with the height above the sea level. 3 Wind power density Wind power density is a comprehensive index in evaluating the wind resource at a particular site.

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