By Charles G. Gunnerson, Jonathan A. French, Q.M. Lu, J.F. Knudsen, S.K. Eskesen, J.T. Powers, F. Shremp, D.A. Segar, E. Stamman, Z. Yucheng
Increasing globalization of the area economic climate is being observed via expanding threats to the marine atmosphere and corresponding elevate in obligations for the engineers, scientists, and planners who're charged with maintaining that setting and serving the peoples of coastal cities.
During the final 1/2 the twentieth century, coastal towns and megacities have made significant investments in water offer and sanitation. And but whereas qualitative future health and environmental advantages were completed, they've got hardly been quantified via post-audits that might supply intent and priorities for destiny investments.
The long-range objectives of the editors and individuals besides the remainder of us in overseas engineering and monetary improvement is to invest in coastal urban wastewater administration greater and extra effective. the typical item of the authors of this e-book, in addition to detailing huge layout details, is to introduce to scholars and practitioners the clinical, engineering, financial, and institutional frameworks in which funding and overview judgements are additional developed.
Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: software Fachgebiet: Environmental Engineering Zielgruppe: Application
William C. Carroll, prior President American Society of Civil Engineers, and international Federation of Engineering Organizations
Read Online or Download Wastewater Management for Coastal Cities: The Ocean Disposal Option PDF
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Extra info for Wastewater Management for Coastal Cities: The Ocean Disposal Option
Areas of high primary productivity have been grouped into three categories by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (21): (1) upwelling areas found primarily off the western subtropical continental coasts (Peru, California, North and Southwestern Africa) and along the equator, where cold, nutrient-rich waters rise to the surface; (2) temperate and sub-Arctic waters off the Southern Ocean, North Atlantic, and North Pacific; and (3) shallow waters over those parts of the continental shelves that receive stream runoff.
7 Fisheries Most harvesting of fish and shellfish occurs along the ocean margins at depths of less than 100 m. Although fishery harvests provide only a small percentage of the total calorie requirements of the world's population, they are an excellent source of animal protein. It has been determined that about 10 grams of animal protein per person daily can prevent protein deficiency, while 36 grams are suggested for minimum good nutrition (43). The 1989 fishery harvest of about ff7 million tons contained 13 million tons of pure protein and constituted principal sources of protein and income for coastal peoples around the world Commercial fishing investments require optimism about future catches.
Diversity may also vary with depth in the water column and the abundance of available nutrients. In benthic communities, different substrates also affect the diversity of habitats. If a system is perturbed, community structure may be altered by certain fast-growing species that can force out previously dominant residents (29). 2 Marine Productivity Besides light, plants require nutrients. Areas of high primary productivity have been grouped into three categories by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (21): (1) upwelling areas found primarily off the western subtropical continental coasts (Peru, California, North and Southwestern Africa) and along the equator, where cold, nutrient-rich waters rise to the surface; (2) temperate and sub-Arctic waters off the Southern Ocean, North Atlantic, and North Pacific; and (3) shallow waters over those parts of the continental shelves that receive stream runoff.