By Willi H. Hager
The moment, enlarged version of this validated reference integrates many new insights into wastewater hydraulics. This paintings serves as a reference for researchers but additionally is a foundation for practising engineers. it may be used as a textual content booklet for graduate scholars, even though it has the features of a reference booklet. It addresses customarily the sewer hydraulician but additionally basic hydraulic engineers who've to take on many an issue in lifestyle, and who won't continuously locate a suitable answer. each one bankruptcy is brought with a precis to stipulate the contents. to demonstrate software of the idea, examples are provided to provide an explanation for the computational approaches. extra, to narrate current wisdom to the background of hydraulics, a few key dates on noteworthy hydraulicians are quoted. A ancient be aware at the improvement of wastewater hydraulics is usually further. References are given on the finish of every bankruptcy, and they're frequently priceless beginning issues for extra interpreting. each one notation is outlined whilst brought, and indexed alphabetically on the finish of every bankruptcy.
This new version comprises specifically sideweirs with throttling pipes, drop shafts with an account at the two-phase circulation beneficial properties, in addition to conduit choking because of direct or undular hydraulic jumps.
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Extra info for Wastewater Hydraulics: Theory and Practice
5th edition. G. Braun: Karlsruhe [in German]. , eds. (1996). Environmental hydraulics. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, NL. M. (1991). Free surface hydraulics. Unwin Hyman: London. Truckenbrodt, E. (1968). Strömungsmechanik. (Fluid mechanics). Springer-Verlag: Berlin [in German]. M. (1991). Viscous fluid flow. McGraw-Hill: New York. Chapter 2 Losses in Flow Abstract Flow losses take place either as friction loss due to wall friction and viscosity or as local flow loss depending on conduit or channel geometry.
Further, for small relative lateral discharge q¯ << 1, the value of ξa is nearly unity. Therefore, if almost the entire fluid flows downstream, the velocity head of the upstream branch is dissipated. The effect of rounding the sharp edges is substantial and has been investigated by Idel’cik (1986). 7 Y-Junction By the term Y-junction one understands a symmetric conduit junction for either combining or dividing flow, as shown in Fig. 14.
Thus, in hydraulic practice, turbulent flow appears almost exclusively. The friction gradient Sf increases almost quadratically with the velocity head (V2 /2g) and decreases somewhat linearly with the pipe diameter D. 3) where the so-called friction factor f (written as l in German texts) must nearly be constant. Detailed measurements in the beginning of the twentieth century showed that f depends, essentially, on the Reynolds number R, as defined in Eq. 2), and the so called relative wall roughness ε = ks /D.