By The Open University
This 10-hour unfastened direction mentioned risks posed via varieties of volcanic eruption, illustrated by way of examples from contemporary eruptions.
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4; Crandell,1971;Costa,1984;Scott,1988). Lahars share many features with other volcanic and nonvolcanicdiamicts(a nongeneticterm for a depositthat is poorlysorted,nonbedded,andcontainsa wide rangeof clast sizes). Somelaharsarenormallygraded,especially in their upperparts,othersare nongradedor reverselygraded. Some havea solelayerof crudelystratifiedsandor fine gravelfrom whichcoarserclastshavebeenexcluded,possiblyby intense shearing. Vesiclesare commonlypresentin the matrix of lahars and were probably formed by trapped air bubbles.
Thosethat focuson maximum-size parameters (Careyand Such data bases could be used to determine numerical Sigurdsson, 1986;CareyandSparks,1986),is probably more probabilities of anareabeingcoveredby a lavaflow. Models significant forunderstanding eruption processes anddynamics of themagmasupplyto a volcanicsystem thatareconstrained than for hazard zonation. , 1986). narrowerrangeof eruptionsizesbasedon the currentstateof Zonationtechniques for lava-flowhazardsat composite the volcanoandan up-m-dateforecastof wind directionsand volcanoes, onwhichlavaflowsposejustoneof manytypesof strengths.
20 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: •" . i :':':'e:':" o 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TRUEl•C AGE(THOUSANDS OFYEARS) õ • 6 Fig. 6. Unequal effectsof contaminationof samplesfor radiocarbondatingwith variousamountsof recentand "dead" (no 14(2)carbon(fromGrootes,1983,andPierce,1986). However, for contaminationwith recent carbon,the effect is nonlinear and olderagesareaffectedmorethanyoungerages. P. 0 2000 methods,but others do not. The lack of closed-system behaviorof U andTh in magmatic andpostmagmatic processes is thoughtto causetheinconsistencies.