By Mark Crocker, Laurie Peter, Ferdi Schuth, Tim S. Zhao, Heinz Frei
There's expanding popularity that inexpensive, excessive ability procedures for the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemical compounds are crucial for increasing the usage of carbon impartial approaches, decreasing dependency on fossil gas assets, and extending rural source of revenue. whereas a lot consciousness has excited about using biomass to supply ethanol through fermentation, excessive potential methods also are required for the construction of hydrocarbon fuels and chemical compounds from lignocellulosic biomass. during this context, this ebook offers an up to date review of the thermochemical equipment on hand for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and chemical substances. as well as conventional conversion applied sciences reminiscent of quickly pyrolysis, new advancements are thought of, together with catalytic routes for the construction of liquid fuels from carbohydrates and using ionic beverages for lignocellulose usage. the person chapters, written through specialists within the box, offer an creation to every subject, in addition to describing contemporary learn advancements.
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Additional info for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals
52. J. Holmgren, R. Marinangeli, T. Marker, M. McCall, J. Petri, S. Czernik, D. Elliott and D. , 2007, 12, 75. 53. K. D. Maher and D. C. , 2007, 98, 2351. 54. P. Ma¨ki-Arvela, I. Kubickova, M. Sna˚re, K. Era¨nen and D. Y. Murzin, Energy & Fuels, 2007, 21, 30. 55. National Science Foundation, ‘‘Breaking the Chemical and Engineering Barriers to Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Next Generation Hydrocarbon Bioreﬁneries’’, G. W. , March 2008. 56. 1 Deﬁnition of Biomass The term biomass is used to describe any material of recent biological origin and includes plant materials such as trees, grasses, and agricultural crops.
The enzyme that helps the photosynthetic reaction is phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP carboxylase) in C4 plants and (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) RuBisCO in C3 plants. Due to the higher eﬃciency of PEP carboxylase, C4 plants can produce more biomass in a shorter time at higher temperatures and greater light intensities. 0% for C4 plants at a temperature of 30 1C and 380 ppm of atmospheric 28 Chapter 2 4 carbon dioxide. 2 Short-Rotation Woody Crops Short-rotation woody crops are fast-growing trees suitable for energy production, harvested on a 3- to 10-year rotation.
50 wt% oil), which together account for the majority of the feedstock currently used in biodiesel production. Together, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constitute lignocellulose, the ﬁbrous material that forms the cell walls of plants and trees. The cellulose forms bundles of ﬁbers that provide strength. 18 Typically, each polysaccharide chain contains between 5000 and 10 000 glucose units. 11 OH H OH H H OH H H OH O H OH O OH O H H H OH H H O OH OH H H n H H OH O OH Simpliﬁed chemical structure of cellulose.