The Morphostructure of the Atlantic Ocean Floor: Its by V.M. Litvin

By V.M. Litvin

The examine of the topography and constitution of the sea ground is without doubt one of the most crucial levels in ascertaining the geological constitution and heritage of improvement of the Earth's oceanic crust. This, in its flip, offers a way for functional, scientifically-substantiated prospecting, exploration and improvement of the mineral assets of the sea. The Atlantic Ocean has been geologically and geophysically studied to an outstanding volume and lots of years of investigating its ground have printed the legislation governing the constitution of the main kinds of its submarine aid (e. g. , the continental shelf, the continental slope, the transition zones, the sea mattress, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge). the fundamental beneficial properties of the Earth's oceanic crust constitution, anomalous geophysical fields, and the thickness and constitution of its sedimentary disguise have additionally been studied. in line with the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean flooring and its surrounding continents, the almost immediately regular thought of recent worldwide tectonics has seemed. a lot of works dedicated to the result of geomorphological, geolog­ ical, and geophysical reviews of the Atlantic Ocean ground have seemed. within the U. S. S. R. , such summarizing works because the Geomorphology of the Atlantic Ocean flooring [34], different types of backside Sediments of the Atlantic Ocean [24], The Geology of the Atlantic Ocean [38], and, a bit of prior, Geophysical reviews of the Earth's Crust constitution within the Atlantic Ocean [13], were published.

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By V.M. Litvin

The examine of the topography and constitution of the sea ground is without doubt one of the most crucial levels in ascertaining the geological constitution and heritage of improvement of the Earth's oceanic crust. This, in its flip, offers a way for functional, scientifically-substantiated prospecting, exploration and improvement of the mineral assets of the sea. The Atlantic Ocean has been geologically and geophysically studied to an outstanding volume and lots of years of investigating its ground have printed the legislation governing the constitution of the main kinds of its submarine aid (e. g. , the continental shelf, the continental slope, the transition zones, the sea mattress, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge). the fundamental beneficial properties of the Earth's oceanic crust constitution, anomalous geophysical fields, and the thickness and constitution of its sedimentary disguise have additionally been studied. in line with the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean flooring and its surrounding continents, the almost immediately regular thought of recent worldwide tectonics has seemed. a lot of works dedicated to the result of geomorphological, geolog­ ical, and geophysical reviews of the Atlantic Ocean ground have seemed. within the U. S. S. R. , such summarizing works because the Geomorphology of the Atlantic Ocean flooring [34], different types of backside Sediments of the Atlantic Ocean [24], The Geology of the Atlantic Ocean [38], and, a bit of prior, Geophysical reviews of the Earth's Crust constitution within the Atlantic Ocean [13], were published.

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The outer slopes of the Rockall Plateau have a gradient of 3_5 0 and are diversified by large block dissections. Between the Faeroes and Iceland stretches the wide Faeroes-Iceland Rise [51 ]. Its surface lies at depths ranging from 300 to 450 m. In the central part of the rise there are small elevations, bounded by steep scarps 40-80 m high, probably the ancient shore cliffs. The outer slopes of the rise are gentle but their gradient increases considerably with depth. Bathyography of the Atlantic Ocean Floor 21 The Iceland Plateau, located between Iceland and Jan Mayen, is a rolling plain with depths of 1800-2200 m, diversified by rather rare hills and scarps orientated in the north-east direction.

The foot of the slope reaches depths of 2500-2800 m, where it passes into the surface of accumulative series. The Canary Islands archipelago is separated from the scarp of the continental slope by a trench with a depth of up to 2000 m. Between the Canary and the Cape Verde Islands the continental slope has a mean gradient of 3-5°. Steeper parts 22 Tha Morphostructura of tha Atlantic Ocean Floor are dissected by submarine canyons, the largest of them - the Cayar Canyon - is situated to the north of the Cape Verde Islands, the gentle parts of slope being practically undissected.

Like the other ridges of this kind it also has a two-pitch slightly hilly surface, with depths over it gradually increasing to the south-east from 3500 to 5000 m. According to the data of seismic profIling, the ridge is made up of sedimentary material lying on a slight uplift of the oceanic basement [ 190] . Approximately in the centre of the basin is located the Bermuda Rise (Plateau) bounded by scarps or series of scarps on three sides, with the exception of its north-western side (Figure 8).

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