The Glutamate/GABA-Glutamine Cycle: Amino Acid by Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald

By Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald

Fundamental biochemical experiences of easy mind metabolism targeting the neuroactive amino acids glutamate and GABA mixed with the seminal statement that one of many key enzymes, glutamine synthetase is localized in astroglial cells yet now not in neurons ended in the formula of the time period “The Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle.” during this cycle glutamate published from neurons is taken up via surrounding astrocytes, amidated via the motion of glutamine synthetase to glutamine that are transferred again to the neurons. The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is sort of a stealth know-how, hiding the glutamate molecule which might be hugely poisonous to neurons as a result of its excitotoxic motion. This sequence of reactions require the concerted and particular interplay of a couple of enzymes and plasma membrane transporters, and this quantity presents in-depth descriptions of those methods. evidently this kind of sequence of advanced reactions may be liable to malfunction and accordingly neurological ailments usually are linked to such malfunction of the enzymes and transporters excited about the cycle. those features also are mentioned in numerous chapters of the book.
A variety of best specialists in neuroscience together with middleman metabolism, enzymology and transporter body structure have contributed to this ebook which gives entire discussions of those assorted elements of the useful significance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle coupling homeostasis of glutamatergic, excitatory neurotransmission to uncomplicated points of mind strength metabolism. This ebook should be of specific value for college kids in addition to execs drawn to those basic procedures eager about mind functionality and dysfunction.

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By Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald

Fundamental biochemical experiences of easy mind metabolism targeting the neuroactive amino acids glutamate and GABA mixed with the seminal statement that one of many key enzymes, glutamine synthetase is localized in astroglial cells yet now not in neurons ended in the formula of the time period “The Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle.” during this cycle glutamate published from neurons is taken up via surrounding astrocytes, amidated via the motion of glutamine synthetase to glutamine that are transferred again to the neurons. The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is sort of a stealth know-how, hiding the glutamate molecule which might be hugely poisonous to neurons as a result of its excitotoxic motion. This sequence of reactions require the concerted and particular interplay of a couple of enzymes and plasma membrane transporters, and this quantity presents in-depth descriptions of those methods. evidently this kind of sequence of advanced reactions may be liable to malfunction and accordingly neurological ailments usually are linked to such malfunction of the enzymes and transporters excited about the cycle. those features also are mentioned in numerous chapters of the book.
A variety of best specialists in neuroscience together with middleman metabolism, enzymology and transporter body structure have contributed to this ebook which gives entire discussions of those assorted elements of the useful significance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle coupling homeostasis of glutamatergic, excitatory neurotransmission to uncomplicated points of mind strength metabolism. This ebook should be of specific value for college kids in addition to execs drawn to those basic procedures eager about mind functionality and dysfunction.

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2006), and it would not disagree with the observations by Balazs (1965) and Dennis et al. (1977). They also confirm that glutamate is an important metabolic substrate (McKenna 2012, 2013) perhaps more because of its direct access to the TCA cycle than of the amount oxidized which must be much smaller than that of glucose, since brain glutamate exclusively originates from its astrocytic production from glucose and astrocytes only account for about one quarter of brain volume and metabolism (reviewed by Hertz 2011b).

J Neurochem 123(3):342–348 Gaitonde MK, Jones J, Evans G (1987) Metabolism of glucose into glutamate via the hexose monophosphate shunt and its inhibition by 6-aminonicotinamide in rat brain in vivo. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 231(1262):71–90 Gandhi GK, Cruz NF, Ball KK, Dienel GA (2009) Astrocytes are poised for lactate trafficking and release from activated brain and for supply of glucose to neurons. J Neurochem 111(2):522–536 36 L. L. Rothman Genda EN, Jackson JG, Sheldon AL, Locke SF, Greco TM, O’Donnell JC, Spruce LA, Xiao R, Guo W, Putt M, Seeholzer S, Ischiropoulos H, Robinson MB (2011) Co-compartmentalization of the astroglial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, with glycolytic enzymes and mitochondria.

J Neurochem 104(Suppl 1):58–59 Hyder F, Fulbright RK, Shulman RG, Rothman DL (2013a) Glutamatergic function in the resting awake human brain is supported by uniformly high oxidative energy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33(3):339–347 Hyder F, Rothman DL, Bennett MR (2013b) Cortical energy demands of signaling and nonsignaling components in brain are conserved across mammalian species and activity levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(9):3549–3554 Ipponi A, Lamberti C, Medica A, Bartolini A, Malmberg-Aiello P (1999) Tiagabine antinociception in rodents depends on GABA(B) receptor activation: parallel antinociception testing and medial thalamus GABA microdialysis.

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