By Claes H. de Vreese
Direct democracy is well known. Referenda are an more and more very important technique of enacting or fighting laws in nations worldwide. This booklet specializes in the foremost actors in a referendum (the political elites/ events, the media and electorate) and is headquartered round issues equivalent to crusade sort, crusade results, electoral mobilization and turnout, in addition to vote selection. The members in particular tackle the function of referendum campaigns and their influence and convey why referendum campaigns may possibly topic greater than the other political election campaigns.
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Extra info for Dynamics of Referendum Campaigns: An International Perspective
This phenomenon has been labelled ‘the punishment trap’ (Schneider and Weitsman, 1996). In the case of referendums on European integration the proposition that these are second-order national elections hold when the issue at stake is of low salience and does not mobilize political cleavages. However, these referendums can appropriate first-order elections when the issue is salient and the political spectrum polarized (see also Hobolt in this volume). Previous studies offer inconsistent explanations about the outcome of national referendums.
2000) ‘The Decline of Party Identification’, in R. Dalton and M. Wattenberg (eds), Parties without Citizens (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Dalton, R. J. (2002) Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies (New York: Chatham House). der Eijk, C. van and M. Franklin (1996) Choosing Europe? (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press). der Eijk, C. van and M. Franklin (2004) ‘Potential for Contestation on European Matters at National Elections in Europe’, in G.
The No campaign was also aided inadvertently by the euro itself, which had been declining steadily against other currencies, particularly the US dollar, since its official launch in January 1999. Except for the dramatic and unanticipated events which occurred in the final week of the campaign, the 2003 Swedish referendum on the euro exhibited considerable similarities to the one in Denmark on the same issue three years earlier. Of course, Swedish politicians must have had the Danish example firmly in mind when they proceeded to call the referendum on the euro.