By Andrew Knight
Few moral concerns create as a lot controversy as invasive experiments on animals. a few scientists declare they're crucial for struggling with significant human affliction, or detecting human pollution. Others declare the opposite, sponsored via millions of sufferers harmed by means of prescribed drugs constructed utilizing animal assessments. a few declare all experiments are performed humanely, to excessive clinical criteria. but, a wealth of reports have lately printed that laboratory animals undergo major pressure, that may distort experimental effects.
-Where, then, does the reality lie?
-How valuable are such experiments in advancing human healthcare?
-How a lot do animals endure for this reason?
-And do scholars actually need to dissect or test on animals?
-What are the consequences on their attitudes in the direction of them? Bioethicist and veterinarian Andrew Knight offers greater than a decade of ground-breaking medical examine, research and adventure to supply evidence-based solutions to a key query: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable?
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Extra resources for The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments
No apes were used in 2008. Some animals counted separately were, in fact, the same animals used repeatedly. However, other than for cats, dogs, and New World and Old World monkeys, the proportion of such animals was very small, and for all species it remained a minority. Data source: EC (2010b). 4 per cent – the largest category overall. 3; EC 2010b). 8 per cent) in the number of animals used for research and development for human medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. 78%) Categories of scientific animal use in the 27 EU member states, a France supplied data for 2007.
G. Wallenstein & Snyder 1952, Blum et al. 1994, Greek & Greek 2000). Although 92 per cent of new drugs that pass preclinical testing, which routinely includes animal tests, fail to reach the market because of safety or efficacy failures in human clinical trials (FDA 2004), adverse drug reactions detected after drugs have been approved for clinical use remain common. They are, indeed, sufficiently common to have been recorded as the fourth to sixth leading cause of death in US hospitals (based on a 95 per cent confidence interval (CI); Lazarou & Pomeranz 1998), a rate considered by these investigators to be ‘extremely high’.
First in humans) clinical trial in the UK, TGN1412 resulted in severe adverse reactions including organ failure. All six trial volunteers required intensive care, and one suffered permanent damage. Yet preclinical testing on several primate, rabbit, and rodent species had failed to reveal adverse effects (Bhogal & Combes 2006, Coghlan 2006; see also pp. 118–19). Another recent notorious example was the arthritis drug Vioxx, which appeared to be safe, and even beneficial to the heart, in animal studies.