By Andre S. Merbach, Lothar Helm, Eacute;va Tóth
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is among the most vital instruments in medical diagnostics and biomedical study. The variety of MRI scanners working all over the world is anticipated to be nearly 20,000, and the advance of distinction brokers, at present utilized in a few 3rd of the 50 million medical MRI examinations played each year, has mostly contributed to this important achievement.
This thoroughly revised and prolonged moment version:
• comprises new chapters on unique, responsive, PARACEST and nanoparticle MRI distinction agents.
• Covers the elemental chemistries, MR physics and an important innovations utilized by chemists within the characterization of MRI brokers from each attitude from synthesis to security considerations.
• Is written for all of these keen on the improvement and alertness of distinction brokers in MRI.
• provided in color, it presents readers with precise illustration and straightforward interpretation of the photographs.
A be aware from the Authors:
Twelve years after the 1st version released, we're confident that the chemistry of MRI brokers has a vivid destiny. by way of assembling all very important info at the layout ideas and functioning of magnetic resonance imaging probes, this publication intends to be a great tool for either specialists and rookies within the box. we are hoping that it is helping encourage additional paintings so as to create extra effective and particular imaging probes that might enable materializing the dream of seeing even deeper and higher contained in the residing organisms.
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Additional resources for The chemistry of contrast agents in medical magnetic resonance imaging
Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 26 The Chemistry of Contrast Agents in Medical Magnetic Resonance Imaging The relaxation mechanism of paramagnetic particles is reviewed in Chapter 10. The discussion of free radicals [10, 11] or of the rapidly emerging ﬁeld of hyperpolarized substances [12–14] as MRI contrast agents is beyond the scope of this survey. The general theory of solvent nuclear relaxation in the presence of paramagnetic substances was developed by Bloembergen, Solomon and others [15–20].
The SC interaction remains unaffected by reorientation of the molecule and is only modulated by electron spin relaxation and water exchange. Calculations of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement induced by metal ions are complicated in general, mainly because of the strong interaction of the electron spin with other degrees of freedom in the system . Different approaches have been developed for a general theoretical description [25–27], but all of them lead to complicated non-analytical mathematical expressions and their application is often reserved for specialists.
3 Proton/water exchange The residence lifetime of protons, τm , plays a dual role in determining proton relaxivity. 12). The exchange of coordinated water protons can occur in two ways: independently of the exchange of the entire water molecule on which it resides, or via the exchange of the water molecule itself. Around a neutral pH, which is of interest for practical applications, the overall proton exchange rate is generally equal to the exchange rate of the entire water molecules, that is, each proton exchanges with the bulk in the form of intact H2 O molecules.