By Liu X., Chu P.K., Ding C.
Titanium and titanium alloys are usual in biomedical units and parts, in particular as challenging tissue replacements in addition to in cardiac and cardiovascular functions, as a result of their fascinating homes, akin to quite low modulus, sturdy fatigue power, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. even though, titanium and its alloys can't meet all the medical specifications. as a result, with a purpose to increase the organic, chemical, and mechanical houses, floor amendment is frequently played. this text reports many of the floor amendment applied sciences relating titanium and titanium alloys together with mechanical therapy, thermal spraying, sol-gel, chemical and electrochemical therapy, and ion implantation from the viewpoint of biomedical engineering. fresh paintings has proven that the wear and tear resistance, corrosion resistance, and organic houses of titanium and titanium alloys might be stronger selectively utilizing the suitable floor therapy recommendations whereas the fascinating bulk attributes of the fabrics are retained. the correct floor therapy expands using titanium and titanium alloys within the biomedical fields. a few of the contemporary purposes also are mentioned during this paper.
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Additional info for Surface modification of titanium, titanium alloys, and related materials for biomedical applications
Plasma sprayed titanium coating. Plasma-sprayed titanium coatings with porous structure have been used in teeth root, hip, knee and shoulder implants. The porous surface improves fixation via the growth of bone into the coating forming a mechanical interlock. Vercaigne et al.  evaluated the biological and mechanical properties of the implant with a titanium coating and investigated the effects of the surface roughness on the bone response. No correlation was observed between the percentage of bone contact and surface roughness.
The principal difference between flame and plasma spraying is the maximum temperature achievable. The coating material is heated by the gases in the flame spray torches and electrical currents provide 83 84 X. Liu et al. / Materials Science and Engineering R 47 (2004) 49–121 Fig. 29. Thermal spray techniques divided by their principal energy sources . energy to the plasmatrons. In flame spraying, the temperature is limited by the internal heat of combustion of the fuel gas. Conventional oxyacetylene torches reach temperatures of around 3000 K.
320 nm). The second method is to first covalently attach the photosensitive group to a surface on which the biomolecule adsorbs and then to activate the nonspecific binding reaction using light or heat. Erdtmann et al.  first coupled an arylazide to cellulose membranes, then immobilized heparin and dermatan with UV irradiation. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have become an important research technique to produce surfaces with a very well defined chemical composition. SAMs have often been used as model surfaces for various biological assays including the study of cell-surface interaction and the influence of the surface chemistry on the spontaneous mineralization caused by contact with simulated body fluid [189,190].