By Alias Abdul-Rahman, Morakot Pilouk
This ebook covers basic features of spatial facts modelling particularly at the element of 3-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of real 3D GIS spatial approach wishes loads of efforts, and the method is occurring in quite a few examine centres and universities in a few nations. the improvement of spatial information modelling for 3D gadgets is the point of interest of this e-book. The booklet starts with a few difficulties and motivations, the basic theories, the implementation, and a few purposes built in response to the thoughts. The e-book is meant for numerous geoinformation comparable execs like GIS engineers, GIS software program builders, photogrammetrists, land surveyors, mapping experts, researchers, postgraduate scholars, and teachers.
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Additional info for Spatial Data Modeling for 3d GIS
Briefly, one way to generate triangles in the raster domain is first by rasterising all surface points. ) That is by using a distance transformation (DT) technique to each kernel point. DT calculates the distances of each point to the neighbouring points. Each kernel point has its dual image that is a Voronoi polygon of surface points. e. three points represent one triangle). Thus, a set of triangles can be established from a set of Voronoi polygons. The shapes and sizes of the triangles vary, depending on the original distribution of the data sets.
Spatial rrelationships are named associations between two or more spatial objects. For example, road A passes through city B. ‘Passes through’ defines a relationship between the road A and the city B, and may be written in a predicate form as ‘Pass_through ( road A, city B )’ (Molenaar, 1994b). 3) Attributes, or descriptions Attributes, or descriptions, are observed facts about a spatial object or relationship. An attribute or description is the smallest (non spatial) unit in the model, and has to be associated with an object type or relationship to be meaningful.
It is necessary to state clearly what the model and modelling are actually meant for. In the context of earth science, the end product we seek is a model in the sense of a replica of some portion of the planet earth, and is called a geospatial model. Since the term ‘spatial model’ covers a large territory over many disciplines (like the modelling of human anatomy in medicine, molecular structure in chemistry, or atomic structure in nuclear physics), we add the prefix geo to indicate the scope and purpose of this earth-related model.