By Olindo Isabella, Klaus Jäger, Arno Smets, René van Swaaij, Miro Zeman
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Extra info for Solar Energy: The Physics and Engineering of Photovoltaic Conversion, Technologies and Systems
3Or biomass authors note. 2 Status and prospects of PV technology In this chapter we give a brief overview on the current status of PV technology and discuss its prospects. 1 shows the worldwide cumulative installed PV power, which is exponentially increasing in time. The vertical axis represents the cumulative installed power capacity expressed in GWp. 5. For China we observe a very strong increase in installed PV power since 2010. Of all the installed PV power at the end of 2013, almost one third was installed in 2013 alone!
Person An active person consumes 2,500 kcal of energy in one day. It has a voltage of 100 MV and carries a current of 100 kA for 30 µs. Assume the following combustion reaction: C + O2 → CO2 + 4 eV. e. heat from 20 °C to 100 °C) 1 kg of water in three minutes. Assume the house is in the Netherlands where the annual irradiation is about 1,000 kWh/m2 year. 5 V battery with a capacity of 2,300 mAh is charged in 3 hours. Humankind The whole world population (7 billion people) consuming on average 1,500 watts per person for one year.
If this energy is converted into electricity directly using devices based on semiconductor materials, we call it photovoltaics (PV). The term photovoltaic is derived from the greek word φως (phos), which means light, and volt, which refers to electricity and is a reverence to the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) who invented the battery. As we will see in this book, typical efficiencies of the most commercial solar modules are in the range of 15-20%. This application is called solar thermal energy and is discussed in detail in Chapter 22.