By Pall`s-Areny, Ramon; Webster, John G.
This re-creation brings you in control at the most up-to-date advances in sensor expertise, addressing either the explosive progress within the use of microsensors and enhancements made in classical macrosensors. They proceed to provide the single mixed therapy for either sensors and the signal-conditioning circuits linked to them, following the dialogue of a given sensor and its functions with signal-conditioning tools for this sort of sensor. New and extended assurance contains:
- New sections on sensor fabrics and microsensor expertise
- simple size tools and first sensors for universal actual amounts
- a variety of new sensors, from magnetoresistive sensors and SQUIDs to biosensors
- the commonly used speed sensors, fiber-optic sensors, and chemical sensors
- Variable CMOS oscillators and different electronic and clever sensors
- sixty eight worked-out examples and 103 end-of-chapter issues of annotated solutions
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Additional resources for Sensors and Signal Conditioning
6 Characteristics to Consider in Sensor Selection Quantity to Measurea Output Characteristics Supply Characteristics Environmental Characteristics Span Target accuracy Resolution Sensitivity Noise ¯oor Signal: voltage, current, frequency Signal type: single ended, di¨erential, ¯oating Impedance Code, if digital Voltage Current Available power Ambient temperature Thermal shock Temperature cycling Reliability Operating life Overload protection Frequency (ac supply) Humidity Acquisition cost Stability Vibration Shock Chemical agents Explosion risks Dirt, dust Immersion Electromagnetic environment Electrostatic discharges Ionizing radiation Weight, size Availability Cabling requirements Connector type Mounting requirements Installation time State when failing Calibration and testing cost Maintenance cost Replacement cost Stability Bandwidth Response time Output impedance Extreme values Interfering quantities Modifying quantities a Sensor static and dynamic characteristics must be compatible with the requirements of the quantity to measure.
18 Pitot tube for point velocity ¯ow measurement. (a) In an open conduit the velocity is indicated by the emerging ¯uid height. (b) In a closed conduit the velocity is calculated from the di¨erence between total pressure and static pressure. The Pitot tube used to measure the velocity of a ¯uid at a point also relies on Bernoulli's principle. 18a), the liquid enters into the tube and rises until the pressure exerted by the ¯uid column balances the force produced by the impacting velocity on the open end.
22 Primary level sensors. (a) and (b) Based on a ¯oat. (c) and (d ) Based on di¨erential pressure measurement. according to h hp rg 1X56 where r is density and g is the acceleration of gravity. This method is suitable for both pressurized and open containers. Temperature interferes because it varies density. 22d overcomes the need for a pressure port near the container bottom, which is a potential leak source. The dip tube has an open end close to the bottom of the tank. An inert gas ¯ows through the dip tube and when gas bubbles escape from the open end, the gas pressure in the tube equals the hydraulic pressure from the liquid.