By A. Chebeskov, A. Kalashnikov, B. Bevard (auth.), Theodore A. Parish, Vyacheslav V. Khromov, Igor Carron (eds.)
The "VOLGA" meetings, hosted in odd-numbered years by means of the dept of Theoretical and Experimental Reactor Physics of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), are essentially the most prestigious technical conferences held in Russia. characteristically, those meetings current the chance for reactor physicists from around the globe to collect at MEPhI's vacation camp at the banks of the Volga river (near Tver) to interchange rules and discover leading edge innovations relating to nuclear energy improvement. In 1997, NATO grew to become excited about the "VOLGA" conferences for the 1st time by means of co-sponsoring "VOLGA97" as a complicated learn workshop. This workshop broke with culture a section in that the venue used to be moved from MEPhI's vacation camp to a situation closer Moscow. The workshop software was once successfully equipped with a view to disguise a large variety of themes on the subject of the subject matter of the assembly. in general, the papers involved defense similar questions linked to using either weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium within the nuclear gas cycle, together with facility necessities, licensing concerns, proliferation dangers, and quite a few complicated recommendations for replacement gas cycles. this system contained a complete of ninety-nine papers offered in 5 days of sessions.
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Extra info for Safety Issues Associated with Plutonium Involvement in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Owing principally to the small fuel requirements, there are limited environmental impacts for the full energy chain, from mining to waste disposal and decommissioning. Security of energy supply. Where indigenous fossil fuel resources are lacking, nuclear power can contribute substantially to security of supply. For countries without oil and gas, such as France, Japan and the Republic of Korea, nuclear power offers a measure of self-reliance and immunity against crises. Uneven distribution of fossil energy resources have often been the underlying factor for conflicts between nations and regions.
46 the high-level waste. Rather, such activities may be conceived as a research effort to pursue benefits for future generations through long-term basic R&D. It seems noteworthy that the advocacy of transmutation rules out the currently favored strategy of direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel elements.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a scientific body established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environmental Programme to deal with climate change, reported in their 1995 Second Assessment Report, that the continuation of current global levels of GHG emissions might cause climate change by 2100 with significant environmental consequences 27 including effects on ocean levels and regional precipitation resulting in a wide range of social and economic impacts.