By Gary A., PhD Adams, Terry A., PhD Beehr
This booklet reports, summarizes, and integrates a various literature relating to retirement and gives a coherent view to higher tell researchers and practitioners. prepared round 3 levels of the retirement process--pre-retirement, retirement decision-making, and post-retirement--the chapters learn financial, sociological, gerontological, and mental conception and study. issues mentioned comprise: forms of retirement, retirement making plans and training, early retirement incentive courses, the economics of the retirement decision-making, and paintings after retirement, between others. participants contain Jerome Kaplan, Kenneth Shultz, Harvey Sterns, and Linda Stroh.
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Additional resources for Retirement: Reasons, Processes, and Results
The benefit regulations of Social Security and especially of pension programs (at least those based oa defined benefit plans) also encourage loyalty to the firm. Defined benefit plans are usually not transferable when workers move and thus encourage worker retention. 18 RETIREMENT Indeed, the mere availability of employer-sponsored pensions helps to attract workers. , Austria) employer contributions are integrated into the state old age security system, typically involving state-employer-union negotiations about benefit rules (Prinz & Maria, 1999), In this case private pensions become unnecessary and employers do not have to engage in competition over pension benefits to attract workers (Woodbury, 2001).
However, historical research demonstrates that prior to the enactment of Social Security, elders accumulated family funds through contributions of unmarried children, forcing some children to delay marriage or to forego further education and thus the prospect of upward mobility. Those lacking family funds sometimes found support within their communities or from charities but were at considerable risk of poverty (Harber & Gratton, 1994; Held, 1982; Laslett, 1977; Thomson, 1989). In developing countries, many elders still rely on their families for economic support, but families are often not a reliable income source and some elders would favor economic independence from their children (Ngan, Chiu, & Wong, 1999).
It is clearly beyond the boundaries of this chapter to discuss each of the implied relationships in detail nor is there empirical evidence to substantiate many of the implied associations. 2, ATTRIBUTES The main attributes associated with retirement well-being are financial status and health (Kosloski, Ginsburg, &. Baektnan, 1984). The 34 RETIREMENT Impact of both health and finances on postretiremen! well-being reflects lifelong processes of disadvantage (Calasanti, 1988; O'Rand & Henretta, 1999).