By Jean-Claude Sabonnadi?re
This ebook bargains with the rising new release of renewable strength applied sciences, protecting solar power (photovoltaic, thermal and thermodynamic power conversion), wind power, marine power, small hydropower, geothermal power, biofuels, biogas and using wooden instead for fossil fuels.
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Thus, light degradation has been reduced from 30% to 10%. 10) is composed of a boron doped zone, an intrinsic zone, and a phosphorous doped zone (p-i-n). Photovoltaic Electricity Production 13 Each element may be connected directly in series without the need for external connections. 10). 11. Cell with silicon base: a) amorphous silicon with p-i-n structure; b) cross-sectional view of a module (source: Solems Corporation) In fact, these studies have shown that layers of μ-crystallines or μ-morphs of hydrogenated silicon deposited using radio frequency discharge make it possible to create cells that do not show any degradation when exposed to light.
This progress is explained by the constant improvement of the quality of the materials and by the growth in understanding of the faults and residual impurities. Currently, we know perfectly well how to counteract the harmful effects of most of the faults of the crystallographic and certain metallic elements on the electric 8 Renewable Energy Technologies activity of the cell by introducing hydrogen at the time, for example, of the deposition of a nitride layer serving as a non-reflecting surface.
Proper sizing of the cables makes it possible to avoid the risk of fire. The use of cables giving a maximum voltage drop of 3% for both alternating and direct current circuits is recommended. Furthermore, cables are generally sized to carry a fault current (Isc_fault) equal to twice the short circuit current of the source (Isc), not including a safety factor. Moreover, each circuit joined to a system of modules, whether distribution or terminal, should have its own safety equipment, assuring electric protection (against overloads, insulation faults, and high voltages), sectioning (making it possible to separate and isolate a circuit or device from the rest of the installation so as to guarantee the safety of people), and control (serving to establish or interrupt the flow of current in the terminal circuit in normal conditions and in overload situations).