By Mohammad N. Islam
3 sections comprise vast history on Raman physics, descriptions of sub-systems and modules using Raman know-how, and a evaluation of present state of the art platforms. applied sciences awarded comprise purposes for long-haul and ultra-long-haul submarine, terrestrial, soliton, and high-speed structures. This publication might be a source for scientists and optical engineers in optoelectronics, fiber optics, telecommunication, and optical networks.
Read Online or Download Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1 : Physical Principles (Springer Series in Optical Sciences) PDF
Similar imaging systems books
There are various books on neural networks, a few of which covercomputational intelligence, yet none that include either function extraction and computational intelligence, as Supervised and Unsupervised trend popularity does. This quantity describes the appliance of a unique, unsupervised trend acceptance scheme to the category of assorted varieties of waveforms and imagesThis titanic choice of contemporary examine starts with an advent to Neural Networks, classifiers, and have extraction tools.
Database and knowledge communique community structures examines the usage of the web and native Area/Wide zone Networks in all parts of human pastime. This three-volume set covers, between different subject matters, database structures, facts compression, database structure, info acquisition, asynchronous move mode (ATM) and the sensible program of those applied sciences.
A whole One-Stop source whereas electronic colour is now the expertise of selection for printers, the information required to handle the standard and productiveness problems with those units is scattered throughout a number of applied sciences, as is its assisting literature. Bringing jointly details from different fields, keep watch over of colour Imaging structures: research and layout is the 1st publication to supply entire insurance of the basics and algorithms of the varied disciplines linked to electronic colour printing in one source.
Which will make the most of electronic pictures successfully, particular innovations are had to lessen the variety of bits required for his or her illustration. This instructional textual content presents the basis for realizing those picture compression tecniques and offers a few assorted schemes that experience confirmed beneficial.
- Fundamental Physics for Probing and Imaging
- Fundamentals of Electronic Imaging Systems: Some Aspects of Image Processing (Springer Series in Information Sciences)
- Forensic Uses of Digital Imaging, Second Edition
- Computer Arts (July 2003)
- Optical Design Fundamentals for Infrared Systems, Second Edition (SPIE Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering Vol. TT48)
- Frequently asked questions in mathematics
Extra info for Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1 : Physical Principles (Springer Series in Optical Sciences)
Namiki and Y. N. 5 0 Current (A) Fig. 11. Research on high-power laser diodes shows the availability of output powers in excess of 1 W in single-mode fibers . Source: A. Mathur, M. Ziari, V. Domenic “Record 1 Watt Fiber-Coupled–Power 480 nm Diode Laser Pump for Raman and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplification” OFC Technical Digest, Postconference Edition, pg PD-15 (©2000 OSA) specialty couplers, WDMs, and the like, are now available for splicing easily into all fiber configurations. In addition, fiber-pigtailed bulk-optic couplers are also now commercially available with full high-power reliability qualifications mainly based on epoxy-free technologies.
As an extreme example, Fig. 6 shows a flat gain spectrum stretching from 1530 to 1610 nm. 1 decibels, 12 pump wavelengths are used between 1417 and 1510 nm . Another advantage of Raman amplification is that it is a relatively broadband amplifier with a bandwidth >5 THz. In addition, the gain is reasonably flat over a wide wavelength range, thus making it easier to gain flatten. As a comparison, 1. 61 Fig. 7. Gain spectrum of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier . Source: E. Desurvire “ErbiumDoped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications”, Copyright ©1994, John Wiley & Sons, Inc; This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
One way to think about the DRA is to consider it as canceling out the loss for a fraction of the fiber length. Therefore, the SNR improvement can be thought of in terms of an equivalent amplifier spacing. 6 dB at 580 mW of pump power. 20 shows the excess noise factor in decibels versus amplifier spacing in kilometers . Assuming that the amplifier sites are spaced by 80 km, using a DRA gives the performance as if the discrete amplifiers were spaced between 35 to 38 km. Thus DRAs give an equivalent performance of much closer spaced amplifiers, giving a very attractive economic incentive for their use.