Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1 : Physical by Mohammad N. Islam

By Mohammad N. Islam

3 sections comprise vast history on Raman physics, descriptions of sub-systems and modules using Raman know-how, and a evaluation of present state of the art platforms. applied sciences awarded comprise purposes for long-haul and ultra-long-haul submarine, terrestrial, soliton, and high-speed structures. This publication might be a source for scientists and optical engineers in optoelectronics, fiber optics, telecommunication, and optical networks.

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By Mohammad N. Islam

3 sections comprise vast history on Raman physics, descriptions of sub-systems and modules using Raman know-how, and a evaluation of present state of the art platforms. applied sciences awarded comprise purposes for long-haul and ultra-long-haul submarine, terrestrial, soliton, and high-speed structures. This publication might be a source for scientists and optical engineers in optoelectronics, fiber optics, telecommunication, and optical networks.

Show description

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Extra info for Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1 : Physical Principles (Springer Series in Optical Sciences)

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Namiki and Y. N. 5 0 Current (A) Fig. 11. Research on high-power laser diodes shows the availability of output powers in excess of 1 W in single-mode fibers [11]. Source: A. Mathur, M. Ziari, V. Domenic “Record 1 Watt Fiber-Coupled–Power 480 nm Diode Laser Pump for Raman and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplification” OFC Technical Digest, Postconference Edition, pg PD-15 (©2000 OSA) specialty couplers, WDMs, and the like, are now available for splicing easily into all fiber configurations. In addition, fiber-pigtailed bulk-optic couplers are also now commercially available with full high-power reliability qualifications mainly based on epoxy-free technologies.

As an extreme example, Fig. 6 shows a flat gain spectrum stretching from 1530 to 1610 nm. 1 decibels, 12 pump wavelengths are used between 1417 and 1510 nm [7]. Another advantage of Raman amplification is that it is a relatively broadband amplifier with a bandwidth >5 THz. In addition, the gain is reasonably flat over a wide wavelength range, thus making it easier to gain flatten. As a comparison, 1. 61 Fig. 7. Gain spectrum of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier [8]. Source: E. Desurvire “ErbiumDoped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications”, Copyright ©1994, John Wiley & Sons, Inc; This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

One way to think about the DRA is to consider it as canceling out the loss for a fraction of the fiber length. Therefore, the SNR improvement can be thought of in terms of an equivalent amplifier spacing. 6 dB at 580 mW of pump power. 20 shows the excess noise factor in decibels versus amplifier spacing in kilometers [34]. Assuming that the amplifier sites are spaced by 80 km, using a DRA gives the performance as if the discrete amplifiers were spaced between 35 to 38 km. Thus DRAs give an equivalent performance of much closer spaced amplifiers, giving a very attractive economic incentive for their use.

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