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This publication offers a normal evaluate approximately chemical and biochemical method expertise. It makes a speciality of the constitution and improvement of creation strategies, major technological operations and a few vital features of procedure economics. For the technological operations the writer emphasis working rules, purposes for software and to be had business apparatus.
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Additional resources for Process Technology: An Introduction (de Gruyter Textbook)
Fig. 5: Production chain for naphtha to polymers. The relations between raw materials, intermediates, semimanufactured products, and finished products are complex. For the chemical industry, the cracking of naphtha and gas oil is an important operation to produce raw materials such as ethylene, propylene, and benzene. These are then used as raw materials for further processing, as shown in the product tree depicted in Fig. 5. The polymers sector is the major user of petrochemical intermediates and consumes almost half the total output of organic intermediates produced.
Product applications can be found in pharmaceutical (50 %), agrochemicals (20 %) flavors and fragrances (5 %), food additives (5 %), and various other industries (20 %). Specialty chemicals are purchased because of their effect rather than composition. There is some overlap in the definitions of fine and specialty chemicals. The European market in fine chemicals is estimated to be approximately € 50 billion in sales, compared to € 500 billion for the commodity segment. With respect to the financial turnover (sales) the specialty chemicals industry is as large as the bulk chemical industry.
2 Continuous processes For large production capacities where the process reaction mechanism is better known and reaction rates are not too slow, continuous processing is often possible. Here, the raw materials are prepared and continuously fed to the reactor. The reactor system is sized so that the materials reside in it long enough at the reaction conditions to achieve the desired extent of reaction. The reaction system may be a single vessel or a number of reactor vessels in series, each operating under different conditions.