By Marc-Andree Wolf, Martin Baitz, Johannes Kreissig (auth.), Peter Eyerer, Martin Weller, Christof Hübner (eds.)
Since their first commercial use polymers have won a massive good fortune. the 2 volumes of "Polymers - possibilities and hazards" problematic on either their potentials and at the influence at the atmosphere coming up from their creation and purposes. quantity eleven "Polymers - possibilities and dangers I: basic and Environmental features" is devoted to the fundamentals of the engineering of polymers – continuously with a purpose to attainable environmental implications. subject matters comprise: fabrics, processing, designing, surfaces, the usage part, recycling, and depositing. quantity 12 "Polymers - possibilities and dangers II: Sustainability, Product layout and Processing" highlights uncooked fabrics and renewable polymers, sustainability, ingredients for manufacture and processing, soften amendment, biodegradation, adhesive applied sciences, and sunlight purposes. All contributions have been written by means of best specialists with titanic sensible adventure of their fields. they're a useful resource of knowledge not just for scientists, but additionally for environmental managers and choice makers.
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Additional resources for Polymers - Opportunities and Risks II: Sustainability, Product Design and Processing
Together with these results, the significant issues can now be established, since it is now also clear which processes or life phases are dominant. 3 Evaluation of Results To evaluate the results according to the standard a completeness check a sensitivity check and a consistency check of the identified processes or life phases must be carried out. Completeness is checked by the mass and energy data analysis. Sensitivity is determined by calculating scenarios of different processes or different Assessing the Sustainability of Polymer Products 39 parameters.
The idea of the allocation in recycling is to distribute burdens that arise in the primary life cycle to other life cycles, which benefit from the first one. Thus, the environmental impacts are decreased from processes that turn out in one life cycle but provide functions to future life cycles of other products. The influence due to the choice of the allocation method is significant. The result of environmental assessment differs also by the considered life cycle (primary, Assessing the Sustainability of Polymer Products 25 secondary, .
4 Life Cycle Assessment of products l l The coverage of all those impacts on the environment, such as raw material and energy consumption, use of land (input flows), emissions to air, water, and land, as well as waste (output flows) associated with the life cycle. Aggregation and assessment of these impacts in view of the possible effects on the environment with the aim of assisting environment-oriented decisions. Figure 4 gives a schematic, graphical overview of Life Cycle Assessment. According to ISO 14040 the application fields of an LCA can assist the user in (see Fig.