Persian Writing on Music: A Study of Persian Musical by Mehrdad Fallahzadeh

By Mehrdad Fallahzadeh

It is a Ph.D. dissertation. This dissertation try to comprehend and map the advance of Persian writings on track; targeting their a variety of methods and adaptations of themes from the start of the eleventh century to the top of the fifteenth century which are known as the classical interval of Persian writing on track. the increase of Persian track literature as part of Persian realized literature used to be as a result of the the political and cultural decentralization of the Abbasid Caliphate. Like so much different genres of discovered literature in Persian, translation and abridgements of and commentaries on Arabic works performed a very important function within the upward thrust and institution of Persian musical literature. crucial conclusions to be drawn from the current research are that we will be able to distinguish among major techniques in Persian writings on track, viz. the non secular and non-religious methods, and that there's a development within the improvement of Persian writings on track which gives us with a periodization of the advance of this literary style. in response to the macro periodization of Persian writings on song that's awarded during this examine, we will be able to determine 5 diverse levels within the improvement of the style; 1) the preliminary interval: ca 1000-110; the 1st interemezzo: ca 1110 as much as 1175; three) the interval of multinational: ca 1175-1299; four) the 1st Golden Age of the style: ca 1300-1435; five) the second one intermezzo: ca 1435-1500.

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By Mehrdad Fallahzadeh

It is a Ph.D. dissertation. This dissertation try to comprehend and map the advance of Persian writings on track; targeting their a variety of methods and adaptations of themes from the start of the eleventh century to the top of the fifteenth century which are known as the classical interval of Persian writing on track. the increase of Persian track literature as part of Persian realized literature used to be as a result of the the political and cultural decentralization of the Abbasid Caliphate. Like so much different genres of discovered literature in Persian, translation and abridgements of and commentaries on Arabic works performed a very important function within the upward thrust and institution of Persian musical literature. crucial conclusions to be drawn from the current research are that we will be able to distinguish among major techniques in Persian writings on track, viz. the non secular and non-religious methods, and that there's a development within the improvement of Persian writings on track which gives us with a periodization of the advance of this literary style. in response to the macro periodization of Persian writings on song that's awarded during this examine, we will be able to determine 5 diverse levels within the improvement of the style; 1) the preliminary interval: ca 1000-110; the 1st interemezzo: ca 1110 as much as 1175; three) the interval of multinational: ca 1175-1299; four) the 1st Golden Age of the style: ca 1300-1435; five) the second one intermezzo: ca 1435-1500.

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Extra info for Persian Writing on Music: A Study of Persian Musical Literature from 1000 to 1500 AD (Studia Iranica Upsalienisa)

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The religious, didactic and even medical, to music were also developed in Arabic from the 9th century onwards. Perhaps the most important approach to music after the theoretical one was the religious approach. And a corpus of treatises on the unlawfulness and lawfulness of music (malƗhƯ, ƥinƗ’, samƗ‘) was written by religious authorities and different writers from the 9th century onwards. With the formation of Sufism this approach developed during the 10th century and many works on samƗ‘ were written by Sufi leaders.

This philosophical musico-literary activity continued and was developed during the Hellenistic period and the early Middle Ages by music theorists. Among the most important and influential works written during this period can be mentioned Ptolemy’s Harmonics (written some time during the second century AD). , those proposed by Aristoxenus and by Archytas] preserves what is truly melodic • Concerning the division of the tetrachords by genus, according to what is rational [eulogon] and evident to perception [phainomenon] • The genera more familiar to the hearing - how many there are, and which ones they are Book Two • How the ratios of the familiar genera can also be found through perception 27 • Concerning the use of the kanǀn in connection with the instrument called the helikǀn • Concerning the forms [eidƝ, ‘species’] of the first concords • Concerning the complete systƝma, and that only the double octave is of this kind • How the names of the notes are understood in relation to thesis [‘position’] and to dynamis [‘function’,‘capacity’] • How the magnitude of the octave conjoined with a fourth acquired the reputation of being a complete systƝma • Concerning modulations with respect to what are called the tonoi • That the outermost tonoi must be bounded by the octave • That we must posit just seven tonoi, equal in number to the species [eidƝ] of the octave • How the differences between the tonoi may be soundly established • That one should not increase the tonoi by the semitones • On the difficulty of using the single-stringed kanǀn • Concerning the alterations to the kanǀn proposed by the musictheorist Didymus • An exposition of the numbers making up the division of the octave in the changeless tonos and for each of the genera individually • Exposition of the numbers that make up the divisions of the familiar genera in the seven tonoi • Concerning the things played on the lyra and the kithara Book Three19 • How the ratios throughout the whole [system] can be employed and assessed by means of the fifteen-stringed kanǀn • Methods for the division of the double octave by means of eight notes only • In what class the power [dynamis] of harmonia, and the science of it, are to be located • That the power of attunement [to hƝrmosmenom] is present in all things that are more prefect in their natures, but is revealed most fully through human souls and through the movements in the heavens • How the concords are attuned to the primary distinctions in the soul, along with the species proper to them 19 Parts of the theory which is presented in this chapter is called “music of the spheres” and attributed to the Babylonians.

34 We know nothing specific about Abnj ‘UbaydallƗh JnjzjƗnƯ, who was one of Ibn SƯnƗ’s disciples. He was probably born in the district of GawzgƗnƗn or ZawzƗn in XurƗsƗn province towards the end of the tenth century. He began his studies probably in his hometown and later in JurjƗn (GurgƗn) where he met Ibn SƯnƗ. He was accepted in the circle of Ibn SƯnƗ’s pupils, and from that time JnjzjƗnƯ became one of Ibn SƯnƗ’s pupils and accompanied him as a disciple (murƯd) throughout his life. JnjzjƗnƯ specialized in mathematics and compiled and completed a number of works, among them, the completion of the section on mathematics of al-NajƗt, probably the translation and re-writing of the section on mathematics in DƗnish-nƗmah-i ‘AlƗ’Ư, the completion of the Ibn SƯnƗ’s biography and a commentary (šarh̞) 30 Bertel´s (1960: 115) states that Avicenna himself also became an IsmƗ‘ƯlƯ follower and therefore had to flee to NayšƗbnjr when Mahҗѽmnjd of the Ƥaznawids, who was an orthodox Sunni, wanted him to serve at his court.

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