By Martin V. Covington
Designed to be inspiring in addition to functional, the ''Psychology within the Classroom'' sequence has a few ordinary good points to make the books effortless to evolve for lecture room use. Overcoming pupil Failure positive factors school room recommendations to provide scholars an incentive to profit.
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Additional info for Overcoming Student Failure: Changing Motives and Incentives for Learning
Value is placed on ability narrowly defined, not on effort. 26 I Overcoming Student Failure 3. The main source of pride is doing better than others. 4. The obstacles to success are other students. 5 . The teacher is a judge 6. Making errors and mistakes is considered to be evidence of stupidity. ITHE DYNAMICS OF SELF-WORTH I There is a tendency in our society to equate achievement with human worth. In effect, people are held to be only as good as their achievements, and in schools these accomplishments typically depend on a narrow set of abilities (Covington, 1992).
Furthermore, perceptions of incompetency trigger feelings of shame and humiliation, and sometimes anger and resentment. Thus when “push comes to shove,” students often must choose between risking a reputation for competency and passing up the rewards offered by the teacher for trylng hard. In these circumstances, many choose not to try or if they do try, do so unenergetically and with excuses always handy (Covington & Beery, 1976). There is little wonder, then, that trylng to motivate students to greater effort by grading them leniently, as Ms.
New York: Academic Press. 44 I Overcoming Student Failure goal two IChanging the Rules: Activities t o ~~~ I ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ Promote Positive Reasons for Learning What is an equity game? An equity game involves rules that establish a level playing field so that all students can feel successful in school and strive for something better, irrespective of how well or poorly other students are doing. I n this goal, the steps that constitute an equity game are examined, using coauthor I