By Richard T. Addo
The eye is a automatic process that has been designed for self-defense, and those safeguard mechanisms create demanding situations in management of medicines to the eye.
as a result, ocular drug supply has been an immense problem to drug supply researchers. There are on-going experiences, looking for remedy in particular for the ailments affecting the posterior phase of the attention. This booklet supplies and assessment of the heritage of ocular drug supply and is exclusive for pharmacists, clinical practitioners, scholars and drug supply researchers.
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Extra info for Ocular Drug Delivery: Advances, Challenges and Applications
For detailed information see Chap. 5. The advantage of the intraocular delivery is: shorten the distance drugs need to diffuse therefore increasing local concentration, reduce drug delivery to other off-target sites to decrease undesirable side effects, and bypass ocular epithelial and other ocular barriers to increasing bioavailability. The disadvantages are invasive methods, but repetitive injections can cause complication such as vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cataract, endophthalmitis, and inflammation (Donovan 2004).
Springer, Berlin, pp 16–119 Mishima S, Maurice DM (1961) The oily layer of the tear ﬁlm and evaporation from the corneal surface. Exp Eye Res, 1(1):39–45. com/science/article/ pii/S0014483561800067. Accessed 1 April 2015 Mitra A, Anand B, Duvvuri S (2006) Drug delivery to the eye. In: Fischbarg J (ed) The biology of the eye. Academic Press, New York, pp 307–351 Nichols KK et al (2011) The international workshop on Meibomian Gland dysfunction: executive summary. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(4):1922–1929.
Common diseases of anterior segment include open-angle glaucoma (OAG), closure angle glaucoma (CAG), cataract, and dry eyes. Many topical formulations are capable of delivering drugs to the anterior segment of the eye for treatment of these diseases, but due to the barriers the drug encounters and the small amount of the drug being delivered, the drug concentration at the intended site is usually minimal (Baranowski et al. 2014). Therefore, designing a new drug delivery system that can efﬁciently target the anterior tissues, generate high drug levels, and maintain prolonged and effective concentration with no or minimal side effects is the major focus of current research in ophthalmic formulations.