By Michael J. R. Fasham, Hugh W. Ducklow (auth.), Michael J. R. Fasham (eds.)
Oceans account for fifty% of the anthropogenic CO2 published into the ambience. in the past 15 years a world programme, the Joint international Ocean Flux research (JGOFS), has been learning the sea carbon cycle to quantify and version the organic and actual strategies wherein CO2 is pumped from the ocean's floor to the depths of the sea, the place it may possibly stay for centuries. This venture is among the greatest multi-disciplinary stories of the oceans ever conducted and this e-book synthesises the implications. It covers all facets of the subject starting from air-sea trade with CO2, the function of actual blending, the uptake of CO2 by marine algae, the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen in the course of the marine nutrition chain to the following export of carbon to the depths of the sea. exact emphasis is laid on predicting destiny climatic change.
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Additional info for Ocean Biogeochemistry: The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global Change
2002). In this review, we address the following questions concerning the role of physical processes and their impact on biogeochemical cycling over the open ocean: 20 Richard G. Williams · Michael J. Follows How are observed nutrient distributions over global to kilometre scales controlled by physical transports and physical-biogeochemical interactions? What is the role of physical processes in maintaining and modulating biological productivity? How are the temporal variations in nutrient distributions and biological productivity, on interannual and longer timescales, connected to changes in atmospheric physical forcing and ocean circulation?
In the North Atlantic, the overturning might be expected to lead to a net flux of nutrients out of the basin with an inflow of surface, nutrient-depleted waters and an outflow of deep, nutrient-enriched waters. Hence, both the zonally-averaged overturning circulation and the downward biological transfer are likely to inhibit the nutrient supply to the euphotic zone and reduce biological production. The converse occurs over the Pacific and Indian Oceans, where the overturning circulation is expected to enhance biological production through the inflow of nutrient-rich waters at depth.
Follows vertical, rather than an advective transfer. In many situations, the integrated effect of many convective plumes is equivalent to large-scale turbulent mixing. It is possible, however, that the biogeochemical processes might be sensitive to the vertical velocities associated with convective plumes. The localised sinking in a plume is accompanied by larger-scale upwelling, such that the overall downwards mass flux is close to zero. This compensating upwelling can prevent the sinking of phytoplankton, zooplankton and the fallout of organic matter during winter (Backhaus et al.