By Guido Visconti, Pietro Di Carlo, W. Brune, M. Schoeberl, Andreas Wahner
The new problem in atmospheric chemistry is to appreciate the intercontinental shipping and transformation of gases and aerosols. to deal with this factor, an international observations platforms community of floor established websites and plane dimension campaigns are hugely asked by way of scientists. TheВ book describes the newest tools for observations from house, via airplane, and on the floor in addition to the sensor net concept.В Additionally, itВ reports the newest effects from GOME, SCIAMACHY, air of mystery, and TOMS satellite tv for pc missions in addition to the main proper airplane and flooring dependent campaigns carried out within the previous few years within the US and Europe. The e-book discussesВ data dealing with in addition to new instructions within the atmospheric observational techniques.
The booklet presents an intensive evaluate of satellite tv for pc and airplane observations and describes new recommendations which were built within the final decade. moreover, it supplies an advent to the sensor net concept.
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Additional info for Observing Systems for Atmospheric Composition: Satellite, Aircraft, Sensor Web and Ground-Based Observational Methods and Strategies
The absorption of this radiation due to stratospheric O3 is typically 20 or more times greater than due to tropospheric O3. Moreover, the radiation generated in the troposphere is multiply scattered, which smears out the profile information. Finally, molecular and cloud scattering can significantly reduce the sensitivity to O3 in the lower troposphere. So far there is no evidence that any satellite technique can sense the O3 near the surface. The best that satellite instruments have been able to achieve so far is to estimate the tropospheric O3 column from total column O3 by subtracting the stratospheric O3 overburden.
A simplified formula for the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance measured by satellite instruments at visible/near-IR wavelengths. 26 Pawan K. Bhartia extinction optical depth, τext. , 2004]. , deserts, MODIS is unable to retrieve any aerosol information. ). , 2004] to improve the estimation of τext over land. This algorithm uses the 412and 490-nm MODIS channels where the land is darker than at the longer wavelengths. Figure 2 shows the τext and Angstrom coefficient (a rough measure of aerosol size) derived from this algorithm using data from the SeaWIFS instrument, which has similar channels.
Although, for instrumental reasons, Dobson–Brewer measurements are rarely taken above 70° SZA, other ground-based techniques (using zenith sky radiances) can go up to 90° SZA, and direct-sun measurements from high altitude aircraft have been taken up to 92° SZA. Retrieval of NO3 from these measurements requires good a priori knowledge of the shape of the O3 profile. This discussion is designed to highlight the fact that almost all remote sensing techniques require some sort of a priori information to do retrieval.