Nephrotoxicity: In Vitro to In Vivo Animals to Man by Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (auth.), P. H. Bach, E. A. Lock (eds.)

By Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (auth.), P. H. Bach, E. A. Lock (eds.)

There has been a transforming into understanding that nephrotoxicity represents a key think about human nephropathies, the place, without reference to the causative agent, just a couple of scientific end-effects are clinically determined. therefore nephropathies are quite often categorized as acute or power renal failure, malignancies or immunological adjustments. The weaknesses in diagnosing nephropathies arises end result of the powerful position the kidney performs in conserving homeostasis, although it's been widely broken. The frequencies of a few form of chemically-induced acute renal failure is definitely documented, however the motives of continual renal failure, malignancy, and different nephropathies are way more tough to go together with a chemical aetiology. a few of the new healing brokers have very important worthwhile results, yet they're chanced on to have marked nephrotoxic results. hence there's a becoming urgency to extend the stringency of chemical protection overview for his or her power nephrotoxic results. this can be strongly countered through the elevated monetary strain to spot very likely nephrotoxic chemical compounds past of their improvement and humanitarian issues to extra heavily relate animal attempt to the scientific scenario. a part of the problem might be completed by way of the expanding use of in vitro techniques.

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By Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (auth.), P. H. Bach, E. A. Lock (eds.)

There has been a transforming into understanding that nephrotoxicity represents a key think about human nephropathies, the place, without reference to the causative agent, just a couple of scientific end-effects are clinically determined. therefore nephropathies are quite often categorized as acute or power renal failure, malignancies or immunological adjustments. The weaknesses in diagnosing nephropathies arises end result of the powerful position the kidney performs in conserving homeostasis, although it's been widely broken. The frequencies of a few form of chemically-induced acute renal failure is definitely documented, however the motives of continual renal failure, malignancy, and different nephropathies are way more tough to go together with a chemical aetiology. a few of the new healing brokers have very important worthwhile results, yet they're chanced on to have marked nephrotoxic results. hence there's a becoming urgency to extend the stringency of chemical protection overview for his or her power nephrotoxic results. this can be strongly countered through the elevated monetary strain to spot very likely nephrotoxic chemical compounds past of their improvement and humanitarian issues to extra heavily relate animal attempt to the scientific scenario. a part of the problem might be completed by way of the expanding use of in vitro techniques.

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Fazacherleyand G. Nordberg, The uptake of mercury in the brains of mamlnals exposed to mercury vapor and to mercuric salts, Arch. Environ. Health 18:719-729 (1969). 13. B. R. W. Clarkson, J. Allen and S. Demuth, The effect of ethanol on the fate of mercury inhaled by man, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 214:420-427 (1980). 14. W. Clarkson and L. Magos, Effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol and other metabolic inhibitors on the renal disposition and excretion of mercury, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:3029-3037 (1970). 15.

19:3029-3037 (1970). 15. L. W. Clarkson, Atomic absorption determination of total, inorganic and organic mercury in blood, J. Assoc. Off. Anal Chem. 55:966971 (1972). 16. H. B. W. Clarkson, Selective determinations of elemental mercury in blood and urine exposed to mercury vapor in vitro, Appl. Toxicol. 1:177-181 (1968). 17. L. J. Quebbemann, In vivo quantification of renal sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the chicken, Drug Metab. Dispos. 9:402-409 (1981). 18. G. B. W. Clarkson and J. Allen, Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor, Arch.

Physiol. 252:F800-F810 (1987) . 54, B-1200 Brussels, INTRODUCTION In man, the kidney is the critical organ following chronic exposure to Cd. increased urinary excretion of plasma proteins usually represents the earliest biological sign of Cd interference with kidney function. , 1974 and 1984). g. ß2-m, RBP, albumin) without clinical proteinuria which rnay be found in workers chronically exposed to Cd, remains a matter of controversy (Lauwerys and Bernard, 1986). We have followed up 23 male workers with such renal changes at the time of their removal from exposure to Cd in order to assess whether these early toxic effects of exposure to Cd were predictive of an accelerated decline in renal function.

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