By Alexander Schramm, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Rainer Schmelzeisen
Computer-assisted concepts within the surgical procedure of the facial skeleton together with the cranium base are depicted for the first actual time during this atlas of navigational surgical procedure. skilled surgeons in addition to trainees will enjoy the distinctive and well-illustrated details at the use of machine expertise in scientific regimen, observed by way of the experimental foundation of intraoperative accuracy. The authors' innovations within the box of non-invasive registration have resulted in frequent use of computer-assisted simulation and navigational surgical procedure during this box, so the time is true for a complete booklet at the subject. The interdisciplinary method brings jointly maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, ENT surgeons, and neurosurgeons. New equipment of non-invasive referencing and using digital types within the box of oral and cranio-maxillofacial surgical procedure are established. medical situations illustrate the sensible use of this new technique.
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Extra resources for Navigation and MIS in Orthopedic Surgery
This distinction follows the principle of choosing the easiest way to acquire the required information. Typical indications for direct 2D navigation: ▬ Long bones: Insertion of intramedullary nails including distal locking [18, 19]. ▬ Corrective osteotomy of long bones. ▬ Hip endoprosthetics, especially acetabulum and shaft navigation. ▬ Insertion of screws in the femoral neck . ), and acetabulum . g. from C1 to C2 [1, 10, 12]. ▬ Pelvis: fractures, insertion of screws in the iliosacral region, osteotomies .
This is to allow automatic detection of and compensation for relative movements of the patient and the camera. Step 3: (Image acquisition and transfer): Images are taken using the C-arm and loaded into the navigation computer. For this purpose the C-arm is equipped with active or passive markers and is tracked by the camera during image acquisition. This means that there is no need for manual registration. Step 4: (Navigation): The surgical instrument is displayed as a virtual instrument (as an animated object) in the medical images in real time.
However, the presence of ferro-magnetic items such as implants, instruments and operating room equipment made of steel can disturb precise measurements dramatically and in unpredictable ways. Moreover, the »coils« are disposable and, therefore, a source of additional per-case expense. The function of software in CAS systems is to integrate medical images and mathematical algorithms with surgi- 4 24 4 Part I · Computer Assited Orthopaedic Surgery cal tools and surgical techniques [19, 22, 24]. A relatively small number of software components underlie most CAS image-free systems.