By Bernd M. Ohnesorge, Thomas G. Flohr, Christoph R. Becker, Andreas Knez, Maximilian F. Reiser
Cardiac ailments, and specifically coronary artery disorder, are the prime explanation for demise and morbidity in industrialized nations. the improvement of non-invasive imaging recommendations for the guts and the coronary arteries has been thought of a key aspect in bettering sufferer care. A leap forward in cardiac imaging utilizing CT happened in 1998, with the creation of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). on the grounds that then, striking advances in functionality have taken position with scanners that collect as much as sixty four slices in keeping with rotation. This ebook discusses the cutting-edge advancements in multi-slice CT for cardiac imaging in addition to those who might be expected sooner or later. It serves as a finished paintings that covers all facets of this know-how, from the technical basics and snapshot overview the entire option to medical symptoms and protocol innovations. This totally transformed moment variation attracts at the newest medical adventure got with sixteen- and 64-slice CT scanners by means of world-leading specialists from Europe and the USA. it's also "hands-on" event within the type of 10 consultant medical case reports, that are incorporated at the accompanying CD. As one other spotlight, the newest result of the very lately brought dual-source CT, that could quickly characterize the CT know-how of selection for cardiac functions, are awarded. This e-book won't purely persuade the reader that multi-slice cardiac CT has arrived in medical perform, it is going to additionally make an important contribution to the schooling of radiologists, cardiologists, technologists, and physicists—whether beginners, skilled clients, or researchers.
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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 8:1923–1933 Cao S et al (1999) Persistent induction of apoptosis and suppression of mitosis as the basis for curative therapy with S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug in a colorectal tumor model. Clin Cancer Res 5:267–274 Cappella P et al (2001) Cell cycle effects of gemcitabine. Int J Cancer 93:401–408 Chabner BA et al (1985) Polyglutamation of methotrexate. Is methotrexate a prodrug? J Clin Invest 76:907–912 Childs HA et al (2000) A phase I study of combined UFT plus leucovorin and radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer.
Because the pharmacokinetics and sensitivity of 5-FU are determined by DPD, stabilization of the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU and the enhancement of its efficacy have been attempted by means of DPD inhibition. The UFT is a small molecule, a combination agent utilizing FTO and uracil in molar proportions of 1:4. Uracil is a competitive and irreversible inhibitor of DPD. This combination ratio was chosen based on preclinical models that suggested tumor selectivity, which produces a constant reserve of 5-FU and its active metabolites and minimizes production of inactive and potentially toxic metabolites (Fujii et al.
Among new combination therapies, those in progress include pemetrexed with carboplatin, oxaliplatin (Scagliotti et al. 2005), or gemcitabine (Monnerat et al. 2004) for lung cancer, with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer (Oettle et al. 2005), and with irinotecan for colorectal cancer (Hochster et al. 2005); however, a randomized phase-III study of pemetrexed plus gemcitabine vs gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer showed that pemetrexed plus gemcitabine regimen was not superior in overall survival or toxicities, but other studies demonstrated that the combinations had good tolerance and were at least as active as previous, more toxic regimens.