Motherland: A Philosophical History of Russia by Lesley Chamberlain

By Lesley Chamberlain

During this "lucid primer of Russian thought" (The instances Literary Supplement), Lesley Chamberlain reveals that in the final centuries Russian intellectuals have requested primary questions, "what makes an excellent man?" and "what is find out how to live?" The nineteenth-century excellent of a contented guy residing in a simply society grew to become, in Russia, a quest to impression the wholesale transformation of society. Chamberlain exhibits how this ethical ardour, manifesting itself in philosophy and literature, existed in either pre- and post-revolutionary Russia. She finds that 1917 didn't signify the watershed we as soon as concept, and indicates how the desires of a undeniable and easy lifestyles reached its destructive apotheosis below Lenin. In Motherland, Lesley Chamberlain has produced an intensive new interpretation of Russian highbrow heritage that, eventually, supplies a glimpse in to the soul of that singular state.

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By Lesley Chamberlain

During this "lucid primer of Russian thought" (The instances Literary Supplement), Lesley Chamberlain reveals that in the final centuries Russian intellectuals have requested primary questions, "what makes an excellent man?" and "what is find out how to live?" The nineteenth-century excellent of a contented guy residing in a simply society grew to become, in Russia, a quest to impression the wholesale transformation of society. Chamberlain exhibits how this ethical ardour, manifesting itself in philosophy and literature, existed in either pre- and post-revolutionary Russia. She finds that 1917 didn't signify the watershed we as soon as concept, and indicates how the desires of a undeniable and easy lifestyles reached its destructive apotheosis below Lenin. In Motherland, Lesley Chamberlain has produced an intensive new interpretation of Russian highbrow heritage that, eventually, supplies a glimpse in to the soul of that singular state.

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Extra resources for Motherland: A Philosophical History of Russia

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In what will turn out to be a recurring pattern, few Russian companies bothered to keep up with the rapidly changing refining and drilling techniques. Russian oil companies also conformed to the period’s dominant international trend: ruthless corporate scheming and bitter rivalries. 22 Petrostate Inevitably, the jockeying for market share around the world by companies such as Standard Oil and Shell had some impact. Price cutting was a common tactic. As a result, many producers cut back on their operations and occasionally went bankrupt.

Depression may be a capitalist disease and it may have had no ostensible effect on the internal workings of the Soviet economy, but there is no denying that a depression of this length and magnitude was bound to have a devastating effect on the world demand for raw materials. This in turn affected Soviet petroleum export earnings. The Soviets quickly realized that they were exporting more but earning less. 1 million tons, they generated only 375 million rubles in revenue. It would take more than twenty years before the volume of Soviet petroleum exports would exceed the 1932 level.

9 COMPETITION FOR MARKETS These developments in turn attracted other prospectors, especially foreigners like the Swede Robert Nobel. 10 By 1883 production exceeded 1 million tons; by 1887 it exceeded 2 million tons (50 million tons equals approximately 1 million barrels a day). 11 However, it took more than tariffs to stem the flow. Russia had become an early battleground for oil producers seeking to carve out exclusive markets for themselves. John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil of the United States, as the world’s largest producer, had taken over a dominant share of the Russian market.

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