Minimally Invasive Medical Technology (Series in Medical by John G. Webster

By John G. Webster

Minimally invasive medication has the objective of supplying healthiness care with minimum trauma. while minimally invasive surgical procedure is applied, it reduces the size of medical institution remains, lowers bills, lowers soreness, and decreases blood loss. different minimally invasive innovations reduce radiation publicity, tissue harm, and drug unwanted side effects.

Collecting contributions from staff in a number of fields in the sphere of minimally invasive clinical expertise, this publication offers crucial info for these concerned with studying, designing, and utilizing minimally invasive units and structures. It emphasizes the know-how required to complete minimally invasive medication. The e-book may be of curiosity to biomedical engineers, clinical physicists, and future health care services who need to know the technical workings in their units and tools.

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By John G. Webster

Minimally invasive medication has the objective of supplying healthiness care with minimum trauma. while minimally invasive surgical procedure is applied, it reduces the size of medical institution remains, lowers bills, lowers soreness, and decreases blood loss. different minimally invasive innovations reduce radiation publicity, tissue harm, and drug unwanted side effects.

Collecting contributions from staff in a number of fields in the sphere of minimally invasive clinical expertise, this publication offers crucial info for these concerned with studying, designing, and utilizing minimally invasive units and structures. It emphasizes the know-how required to complete minimally invasive medication. The e-book may be of curiosity to biomedical engineers, clinical physicists, and future health care services who need to know the technical workings in their units and tools.

Show description

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The electrode and the metal shaft are insulated with a film. Only the tip of the electrode remains uninsulated. Due to the electrical properties of the metal electrode, it behaves as a high-pass filter to neuro-electric signals (Neuman 1998). The metal microelectrode is suitable for recording neural signals with a frequency range from 100 Hz to 6 kHz. 2 Micropipette electrode The glass micropipette electrode is made from 1 to 2 mm diameter glass capillaries. The glass tube is heated up to the softening temperature and then rapidly stretched into halves to make fine tips at the breaking point.

The dye is excited with blue light at 486 nm and emits fluorescence at 514 nm. The fluorescence is quenched by oxygen and the effect is dependent on the pO2. The intensity ratio between the excitation and fluorescence determines the pO2. 7. In a catheter-type fiber-optic oxygen sensor, oxygen diffuses through the membrane to quench fluorescence in the excited dye. Other similar techniques have been used to measure chemical concentrations such as CO2 and H+. Some catheters have been designed so that the pO2, pCO2 and pH can be measured at the same time (Soller 1994).

In particular, wavelength-dependent absorption properties of various species such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome in the tissue affect the measured transmittance and reflectance. 8. Optical oximetry principle. (a) Transmission or forward-scattered mode. (b) Reflection or back-scattered mode. In normal tissue, the hemoglobin concentration is much greater than that of other species. When the transmission and reflection spectra are measured, they are strongly dependent on the absorption of hemoglobin.

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