Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry by Kappe C.O., Stadler A.

By Kappe C.O., Stadler A.

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By Kappe C.O., Stadler A.

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The 1st NATO technology discussion board used to be held in Biarritz in September 1990. This Taormina convention is the second one in a chain that we want to be an extended one and that i think that it has equalled the good fortune of its predecessor. In developing those conferences the NATO technology Committee desired to assemble top specialists to check fields of robust current curiosity.

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The reason for this is that cyanuric acid, which is first formed as a solid at the walls of the reactor, is a poorly heat-conductive material (it decomposes without melting at 300 C), and it forms an insulating crust which prevents heat transfer to the rest of the reaction mixture. Increasing the temperature of the wall (that is, the oil-bath temperature) results in partial decomposition and does not improve the chemical yield of cyanuric acid significantly. In contrast, very good yields of cyanuric acid (83%) can be obtained by volumetric microwave heating on a 2 gram scale for 2 min without any urea or biuret side-product being detected at the end of the reaction [14].

R. Baxendale, S. V. Ley, M. Nessi, C. Piutti, Tetrahedron 2002, 58, 6285–6304. [47] N. E. Leadbeater, S. J. Pillsbury, E. Shanahan, V. A. Williams, Tetrahedron 2005, 61, 3565–3585. 1 Introduction Although many of the early pioneering experiments in microwave-assisted organic synthesis were carried out with domestic microwave ovens, the current trend is undoubtedly to use dedicated instruments for chemical synthesis (see Fig. 1). In a domestic microwave oven, the irradiation power is generally controlled by on-off cycles of the magnetron (pulsed irradiation), and it is typically not possible to monitor the reaction temperature in a reliable way.

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