By Dr. Roswitha Wiltschko, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Wiltschko (auth.)
Biological results of magnetic fields were studied in lots of animals and crops. The magnetic fields have been of a large depth diversity and, as alternating fields, of a large frequency diversity and of numerous impulse shapes. results at the mobile point, on bio chemical tactics, development and improvement, interactions with body structure, sensory enter, reflexes and rhythm keep watch over, to call quite a few, were suggested. various magnetically caused adjustments in habit have additionally been defined. lately, the volume of literature protecting organic results of magnetic fields has been quickly expanding. by means of now it has grown to such an volume that it might probably not be lined in a single quantity. such a lot experiences specialize and concentrate on specific facets and/or different types of fields or results. for instance, the booklet edited via MARET et al. (1986) offers an summary on organic results of regular magnetic fields, MISAKIAN et al. (1993) reviewed these of tremendous low frequency magnetic fields, targeting in vitro results. BERN demanding (1992) mentioned on 'electromagnetic smog' in view of pos sible results on human wellbeing and fitness and health, and a chain of papers edited via AMEMIYA (1994) summarizes eastern examine on results of electromagnetic fields starting from extern ely low to ultra-high frequencies. TENFORDE (1979) and ADEY (1981) sum marized and mentioned tissue interactions, REITER (1993a) neu roendocrine and neurochemical adjustments linked to several types of electromagnetic fields. The booklet edited through KIRSCHVINK et al.
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Extra info for Magnetic Orientation in Animals
Data from MARTIN and LINDAUER 1977) than 5 %, whereas the tendencies in the cardinal directions became more pronounced when the total intensity was increased (Fig. 8). Staying in a strong magnetic field of 450 000 nT had some after-effects, however: back in the local geomagnetic field, the bees first produced dances similar to those recorded in a reduced field. After about 1 h, the dances approached the pattern regularly observed in the geomagnetic field, and those recorded on the next day looked normal (MARTIN and LINDAUER 1977).
1981; TORRES DE ARAUJO et al. 1990). For anaerobic and microaerobic organisms too small to make use of gravity, the directing forces of the magnetic field provide a useful alternative for moving downward. Under these circumstances, magneto taxis is of considerable survival value. An extended review on magnetic bacteria and their biomineralization is given by MANN et al. (1990); FRANKEL (1986) summarizes corresponding findings in single-celled euglenoid algae. In these bacteria and algae, the movement is active, consuming energy supplied by the organism.
These findings suggest that in Philophthalmus gralli miracidia, magnetotaxis and geotaxis are coupled to help the larvae to reach the habitat where potential hosts are to be found. Formally, this magnetotactic response is very similar to the one described for magnetotactic bacteria and algae and thus represents an interesting parallel. However, in bacteria, a purely passive alignment is the basis for magnetotactic movements (BLAKEMORE 1975; cf. Sect. 1). The miracidia of P. gralli, in contrast, are not passively aligned, but must be assumed to actively process magnetic information, even if details are not yet known.