Magnetic Fusion Technology by Thomas J. Dolan (Ed.), Thomas J. Dolan

By Thomas J. Dolan (Ed.), Thomas J. Dolan

Magnetic Fusion know-how describes the applied sciences which are required for winning improvement of nuclear fusion energy crops utilizing powerful magnetic fields. those applied sciences comprise: • magnet structures, • plasma heating platforms, • keep an eye on platforms, • power conversion platforms, • complex fabrics improvement, • vacuum structures, • cryogenic platforms, • plasma diagnostics, • protection structures, and • energy plant layout reviews. Magnetic Fusion know-how could be precious to scholars and to experts operating in strength research.

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By Thomas J. Dolan (Ed.), Thomas J. Dolan

Magnetic Fusion know-how describes the applied sciences which are required for winning improvement of nuclear fusion energy crops utilizing powerful magnetic fields. those applied sciences comprise: • magnet structures, • plasma heating platforms, • keep an eye on platforms, • power conversion platforms, • complex fabrics improvement, • vacuum structures, • cryogenic platforms, • plasma diagnostics, • protection structures, and • energy plant layout reviews. Magnetic Fusion know-how could be precious to scholars and to experts operating in strength research.

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9). The poloidal field (PF) coils control the plasma shape and position. The dashed ellipses represent magnetic flux surfaces of the plasma 24 T. J. Dolan and A. 3 15 20 5 10 12 20 20 40 24 39 – 8 7 0 b [ 12 % Long pulses * 28 s equivalent Q [ 1. Being upgraded P(DT) = 15 MW Expect Be walls Q * 10 Ro and a are defined in Fig. info) With DT fuel the JET device produced 22 MJ of fusion energy in 4 s (average thermal power of several MW). The ITER experiment (originally called the ‘‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’’), is under construction in France.

3 atm. A simple formula for the DT fusion reaction rate parameter is hrvi % 5:1  10À22 ½lnðTÞ À 2:1Š m3 =s ð1:7Þ which has ±6 % accuracy in the range 10 \ T \ 50 keV. 54 MeV alpha particles (4He nuclei) produced by DT fusion reactions can stay in the plasma and heat it up so much that alpha heating alone can sustain the plasma temperature. This self-sustainment, called ‘‘ignition’’, can occur when the triple product is high (when Q ? in Fig. 11). Plasma Pressure The optimum temperature for magnetic fusion is the temperature that maximizes the fusion power density (W/m3) at a given plasma pressure.

The following 7 processes tend to bring the plasma towards the undesirable thermodynamic equilibrium: • Plasma flow along B—in open magnetic systems or in ‘‘ergodic’’ (randomly oriented) magnetic field lines. • Plasma Drift across the magnetic field, caused by electric fields, magnetic field gradients, magnetic field curvature, etc. 12 T. J. Dolan and A. Parrish • Heat Transport—conduction and convection. • Radiation losses—line radiation, bremsstrahlung radiation, and cyclotron radiation. • Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities—changes of plasma shape driven by gradients of pressure or current density.

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