Life in the Cold: An Introduction to Winter Ecology (4th by Peter J. Marchand

By Peter J. Marchand

Peter J. Marchand's lifestyles within the chilly is still the single e-book that provides a accomplished photo of the interactions of crops and animals--including humans--with their cold-weather surroundings. concentrating on the issues of "winter-active" organisms, Marchand illuminates the various demanding situations of maintaining lifestyles in areas that call for amazing diversifications. The fourth variation of this vintage textual content contains a new bankruptcy on weather swap and its results on crops and animals wintering within the North.

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By Peter J. Marchand

Peter J. Marchand's lifestyles within the chilly is still the single e-book that provides a accomplished photo of the interactions of crops and animals--including humans--with their cold-weather surroundings. concentrating on the issues of "winter-active" organisms, Marchand illuminates the various demanding situations of maintaining lifestyles in areas that call for amazing diversifications. The fourth variation of this vintage textual content contains a new bankruptcy on weather swap and its results on crops and animals wintering within the North.

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Additional info for Life in the Cold: An Introduction to Winter Ecology (4th Edition)

Sample text

In mountainous regions the process of constructive metamorphism leads directly to an increase in avalanche danger. In times past when mountain troops were brought out to footpack threatening slopes, their job was, in effect, to reverse the constructive metamorphic process and promote destructive metamorphism instead. Melt Metamorphism The third process of snowpack alteration is “melt metamorphism,” an almost self-explanatory change that comes about when any part of the The Changing Snowpack 29 Figure 6 Depth hoar.

26 Life in the Cold pertains to the use of snow shelters in the North. The traditional shelter of the Inuit winter camp, the igloo is constructed of wind-packed snow that owes its strength to the bonding that takes place during this metamorphic process. The effectiveness of the Quin-zhee, a snow house of Athabaskan origin used in boreal forest regions, is also related to the increase in strength accompanying destructive metamorphism when loose snow is piled and allowed a short while to “set” naturally (see box on “Snowpack Metamorphism and Winter Shelter”).

The meltwater essentially acts as a heat pump, gaining 335 joules/g at the surface when it changes from solid to liquid and transferring this energy to lower layers of the snowpack when it freezes again. This has the effect of bringing the whole snowpack rapidly to equal temperature. Melt metamorphism also occurs when rain falls on the snow surface or when fog forms over the snowpack. In the case of rainfall, the amount of heat energy transferred to the snowpack is related to the temperature of the rain itself and, of course, to the total quantity of rain entering the snowpack.

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