By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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The 1st NATO technology discussion board was once held in Biarritz in September 1990. This Taormina convention is the second one in a chain that we want to be an extended one and that i think that it has equalled the good fortune of its predecessor. In developing those conferences the NATO technology Committee desired to assemble prime specialists to study fields of robust current curiosity.
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This drug is also used in some countries to improve feed efﬁciency in pigs and chickens. Erythromycin is used for the treatment of Campylobacter enteritis and pyoderma in dogs. Although erythromycin is used in the treatment of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals, azithromycin combined with rifampicin is now more commonly used. As mentioned above, two pleuromutilins are used in veterinary medicine. Tiamulin is available as a pre-mix and a water-soluble powder for addition to drinking water for pigs and poultry, and as an injection for pigs.
Cyadox has been used as a feed additive for pigs, calves, and poultry to promote growth. Occupational exposure of farmworkers to the quinoxaline class of antimicrobials may result in dermal photosensitivity reactions. 4 whereby light causes a structural change in a drug so that it acts as a hapten, possibly binding to proteins in the skin. Olaquindox causes photoallergic reactions in humans and animals. On exposure to light, olaquindox forms a reactive oxaziridine derivative, and this imino-N -oxide reacts with protein to form a photoallergen.
82,83 In the case of olaquindox, the JECFA84 concluded that the substance is potentially genotoxic and that the toxicity of its metabolites is inadequately understood. For these reasons, the JECFA was unable to determine the amount of residues in food that did not cause an appreciable risk to human health, and thus MRLs were not established for these compounds by the CAC (see Chapter 3 for further discussion). Details Quinoxalines INN IUPAC Name, Molecular Formula, CAS Registry No. Carbadox Methyl (2E )-2-[(1,4-dioxidoquinoxalin-2-yl)methylene]hydrazine carboxylate Chemical Structure H3C O 6804-07-5 N N+ O− N+ N N N H Quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide C8 H6 N2 O2 2423-66-7 − O H3C HO H N O− N+ N+ author was not able to ﬁnd a pKa value for the substance in the public literature.