By D. C. Cullum (auth.), Mr D. C. Cullum (eds.)
The research of surfactants offers many difficulties to the analyst. This publication has been written by way of an skilled staff of surfactant analysts, to provide sensible assist in this tough box. Readers will locate the obtainable textual content and transparent description of equipment, besides vast references, a useful relief of their work.
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Extra info for Introduction to Surfactant Analysis
The monoester usually contains some diester and may contain some triester. The diester usually contains both mono- and triester. They are often supplied as the free acids and both are then likely to contain free phosphoric acid. 2 Common types of nonionic surfactants Non-nitrogenous Fatty alcohols Fatty alcohol ethoxylates Alkylphenol ethoxylates Polyethylene glycol esters (ethoxylated fatty acids) Sorbitan esters (also ethoxylated derivatives) ROH R(OCzH4)nOH RC6H4(0CzH4)nOH RCO( OCzH4)nOH RCOOCH 2CHOHC(CHOH)zCH2 Lo~ 21 SURFACTANT TYPES Alkyl polyglycosides (n = 0 to 4) CH 2 0H I CH--0 / 0-CH "' CH '\ CHOH~CHOH / OR Sucrose mono and polyesters Also fatty acid mono- and diesters of ethylene and propylene glycols, mono- and diglycerides and ethoxylated derivatives.
In addition there are several British Standards dealing with soaps. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) also publishes annually a collection of standard methods , but they do not correspond to any significant extent with the ISO or BS methods. A list of them is given in Appendix 2. It will be obvious that the scope of these sets of standard methods is somewhat limited, dealing as they do with only the most common constituents of detergent products. Some of the methods are, however, applicable to a wider range of materials than those specified.
121 (1943), 826-827. 5. ISO 5725: 1986 (E). Precision of test methods, Part 1. Guide for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility for a standard test method by interlaboratory tests. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 6. British Standard BS 6829: Analysis of surface active agents (raw materials). British Standards Institution, Milton Keynes. 7. British Standard BS 3762: Analysis of formulated detergents. British Standards Institution, Milton Keynes. 8. 04. Soap, Polishes, Leather, Resilient Floor Coverings.