By E. M. Pantelouris
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Extra resources for Introduction to Animal Physiology and Physiological Genetics
The membrane of the model is not excitable, and so on. However, the structural proteins are believed to remain undamaged in the model. The contractile model can be made to contract in vitro, by immer sion in a solution of A T P . This suggests a close connection of the shortening phase in muscle with A T P and the ATPase activity of the myosin. It is also believed that the controlled formation of actomyosin is important in the contraction process; and it is known that A T P , A D P , a system for the restoration of A T P , and a factor causing relaxation of the contracted fibre, all are to be found in the living fibre.
Note the discrepancy between frequency of stimulation and frequency of muscle contractions. 51 MUSCLE sodium whilst the interior of the fibre is rich in potassium. Herbivore insects, however, for example, Carausius morosus, have larger amounts of K and Mg than Na and Ca in the lymph. The question there fore arises whether this electrolyte distribution is correlated to any peculiarity of electrical properties. Working with intracellular electrodes in single fibres of the flexor tibialis muscle, and changing the composition of the saline medium, Wood found that lowering of the sodium content reduced the size of resting and acting potentials; but even with no sodium at all a potential could be obtained, the effect being reversible.
For example, sodium sulphate feels salty at the tip of the tongue but bitter at its base. The receptor cells are grouped in taste buds in the papillae of the tongue; a papilla might contain receptor cells of more than one type in varying proportions. The vallate papillae at the base of the tongue contain mainly bitter receptors, whilst the fungiform papillae con tain varying proportions of receptors for all four primary taste sen sations: sweet, salty, bitter and acid. The small filiform papillae rarely contain taste buds.