By Arnaud Darmont
Illumination is a vital aspect in lots of purposes, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational variety of a digital camera. while luminance can't be correctly managed, a excessive dynamic diversity (HDR) imaging process might be worthy. those structures are being more and more utilized in car on-board platforms, highway site visitors tracking, and different business, safety, and army functions. This publication offers readers with an intermediate dialogue of HDR snapshot sensors and strategies for commercial and non-industrial functions. It describes a variety of sensor and pixel architectures in a position to reaching HDR imaging, in addition to software program techniques to make excessive dynamic variety photos out of decrease dynamic diversity sensors or photo units. a few equipment for computerized keep an eye on of publicity and dynamic diversity of snapshot sensors also are brought.
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Extra info for High Dynamic Range Imaging: Sensors and Architectures
The saturation level corresponds to the discharge of the storage element below the lowest readable level of the pixel (or to this level if anti-blooming and anti-corona circuits are present). 7) 0 for pixel (k, l). 8) and the discharge of the storage element is almost linear. The photocurrent in the last expression has to be understood as the average photocurrent over the integration time. The two parameters that can be modified by the user or by the digital circuit that drives the pixel are C and tint .
SNR is defined as the ratio between the signal level and the total noise level, and is a function of pixel irradiance. 15 Summary of noise sources, SNR, and dynamic range of (a) a sensor and (b) an image. following formula (plotted in Fig. 16 on a logarithmic scale): ηµ p SNR µ p = σ2d + DSNU 2 + PRNU 2 η2 µ2p + σ2q K2 . 8) + ηµ p K is the overall system gain taking into account the in-pixel gain and the readout gain. A proof of this formula, a formula that is used in older revisions of the EMVA1288 standard, will be given later.
Pixel operation is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 3. Although each sensor differs in pixel design and technology, all sensors can be characterized similarly. The most important characteristics of a pixel are its geometrical fill factor, full well size, shuttering capabilities, response control, image lag, leakage, conversion gain, and noise. This book focuses on full well size, leakage, conversion gain, noise, and response control because these factors affect the dynamic range of the sensor.