Handling and Processing Rad Waste from Nuclear Appls (IAEA

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Extra info for Handling and Processing Rad Waste from Nuclear Appls (IAEA TRS-402)

Example text

Waste management regulations should generally be drafted by the appointed regulatory agency, based on the national policies and legislation. Following modification, approval and enactment by the appropriate assemblies, the legislation should 26 form the basis for the regulations. The legislation can establish definitions, list technical limits on various waste properties and/or quantities (or specify the process to establish them), and establish legal mechanisms for enforcement, exclusion or exemption for various forms of waste.

Evaporator concentrates Evaporator concentrates are produced through an evaporation process by which the volatile and non-volatile components of a solution or slurry are separated to 19 reduce both the waste volume and the amount of radioactivity in a liquid effluent. Evaporation is most effectively used for radioactive liquids with high concentrations of salts or other impurities. The concentrate or bottoms product can range from 15 wt% solids to a virtually dry powder or cake, depending on the evaporator type and efficiency and on the chemical composition of the waste stream.

The financial requirements broadly comprise two categories. The first category covers the direct costs involved in carrying out the various operational steps such as handling, transport, conditioning and storage. These costs can be allocated to the respective waste generators and operators. The second category covers the indirect costs, such as those of the state and regulatory functions. Any waste management plan should include cost estimates to be used for forming the basis for funding proposals consistent with the national waste management system, and that describe a financing mechanism using the provisions included in the legal framework of the country.

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