Handbook of Energy Audit by Albert Thumann

By Albert Thumann

This up-to-date guide presents various equipment and ideas to minimize strength money owed. It offers step by step instructions for 1000s of power conservation possibilities.

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By Albert Thumann

This up-to-date guide presents various equipment and ideas to minimize strength money owed. It offers step by step instructions for 1000s of power conservation possibilities.

Show description

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Understanding the Utility Bill 45 Firm Rates With a firm rate, the customer is assured delivery of natural gas service under all weather conditions. Firm service is ideal for businesses with heating loads that require uninterrupted service. Interruptible Rates Customers on interruptible service agree to curtail their natural gas use during peak times when requested by the utility. Customers on interruptible services must operate an alternate fuel system or be willing to shut down operations, during periods of curtailment.

Thermal Values When working with the wide variety of fuel types available in most commercial facilities, it often becomes necessary to find a way to compare one fuel to another in terms of the cost of energy delivered per unit of fuel. The primary common denominator for all types and sources of energy is the “British thermal unit,” better known as the Btu. Most utility companies measure natural gas in thousands of cubic feet (Mcf) or hundreds of cubic feet (Ccf) and convert to therms, oil is delivered in gallons or barrels, electricity in kilowatt hours, coal in tons, etc.

Life cycle costing is a tool in value engineering. Other items, such as installation time, pollution effects, aesthetic considerations, delivery time, and owner preferences will temper the rule of always choosing the system with the lowest life cycle cost. Good overall judgment is still required. The life cycle cost analysis still contains judgment factors pertaining to interest rates, useful life, and inflation rates. Even with the judgment element, life cycle costing is the most important tool in value engineering, since the results are quantified in terms of dollars.

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