By S. M. Manskaya, T. V. Drozdova, Dean Earl Ingerson
Geochemistry of natural ingredients, quantity 28 correlates rules concerning the composition and transformation of decomposition items of organisms in normal approaches with phenomena of migration and the focus of chemical parts via natural ingredients in sedimentary rocks. This publication provides theories concerning the chemical constitution of typical compounds that paintings as progenitors for the formation of naturally-occurring natural elements.
Organized into elements encompassing 12 chapters, this quantity begins with an outline of the biosynthesis and the metabolism of natural elements that signify the intermediate compounds. this article then examines the formation of fossil elements, which happens in a variety of levels and will depend on numerous components. different chapters ponder the position of the natural components of coal within the geochemical cycle of carbon. This e-book discusses besides the composition and distribution of the natural elements in water and sediments of basins of assorted kinds. the ultimate bankruptcy bargains with the numerous function of fossil natural subject at a number of levels of its formation.
This ebook is a worthy source for botanists, geochemists, paleobiochemists, and coal chemists.
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Extra info for Geochemistry of Organic Substances
Humins are the dark brown organic residues that remain after separation from soil of the alkaline extract of humic acids. The humins are distinguished by a high ash content and by insolubility in aqueous acids and alkalies. The relationships between humic acids, fulvic acids, and humins in various peats and in soils differ; humic acids generally prevail in chernozems; fulvic acids prevail in podzolic soils. On the basis of investigations and studies of humus and soil of the USSR, Tyorin (1951) reported the following data concerning the quantitative relationships of individual groups of humic substances (in percent of humus based on carbon determinations) : Soil Podzol Chernozem Humic acids Fulvic acids Humins 20 35 35 22 32 25 The content of humic acids in sphagnum peat, which has an especially small degree of decomposition, can vary over a wide range of from 5 to 2 5 % ; in well decomposed peat, the humic acid can rise to 70-80 %.
Scirpus plays a large role by overgrowing the lake Scirpus lacustris Fam. Juncaginaceae Scheuchzeria palustris Dicotyledons Fam. Gentianaceae Fam. Droseraceae Drosera rotundiMenyanthes trifolia foliata D. anglica Fam. Rosaceae Fam. ) Plant groups Main distribution At the lower part of the bog At the upper part of the bog Comments Brushwood Fam. Empetraceae Family Empetraceae is Fam. Salicaceae encountered in the Empetrum nigrum Salix lapponum North in tundra Salix myrtilloides Fam. Ericaceae The brushwood family Ledum palustrie Salix repens Ericaceae is encountCassandra calySalix cinerea ered also in transiculata tional bogs Andromeda poliPadus racemos folia Vaccinium uligiSorbus aucuparia nosum Rhamnus franOxycoccus pogiala lustris Calluna vulgaris Woody Fam.
Pieces of wood with well-preserved morphological structures are found in peat and buried soils. They are distinguished by different degrees of decomposition depending upon the ORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN PEAT A N D THEIR FORMATION 41 conditions of preservation and the species of wood, and also by differences in the quantity of humic acids. Humic acids, fulvic acids, and humins are specific organic compounds of soil, peat, and coal. They are not contained in living plants and animal tissue, but are formed in soil and peat and are products of secondary syntheses from simple organic compounds formed by microbiological breakdown of plant and animal remains.