Gene manipulation by S Nadkarni

By S Nadkarni

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By S Nadkarni

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In E. coli apparently the same SSB is used in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Because the two strands of a replication helix must make a full rotation to unwind each of the turns, some kind of swivel mechanism must exist to avoid the buildup of so much stress farther along the helix that strand separation would be brought to a halt. In E. coli, for example, only about 10 percent of the genome could be replicated before the torsional stress caused by unwinding became too great to continue.

Understanding these basic features of heredity requires identification of the chemical nature of the genetic material and the processes through which it is replicated. The structure of DNA was described as a helix of two paired, complementary, antiparallel strands, each composed of an ordered string of nucleotides bearing A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine), or C (cytosine). WatsonCrick base pairing between A and T and between G and C in the complementary strands holds the strands together. The complementarity is also the key to replication, because each strand can serve as a template for the synthesis of a new, complementary strand.

The proofreading function can look back only ')ne base (the one added last). Nevertheless, the genetic significance of the proofreading function is that it is an errorcorrecting mechanism that serves to reduce the frequency of mutation resulting from the incorporation of incorrect nucleotide in DNA replication. 3 One Strand of Replicating DNA is Synthesized in Pieces In the model of replication suggested by Watson and Crick both daughter strands were supposed to be replicated as continuous units.

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