Fusion Technology 1990 by B.E. Keen, M. Huguet and R.M. Hemsworth (Eds.)

By B.E. Keen, M. Huguet and R.M. Hemsworth (Eds.)

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By B.E. Keen, M. Huguet and R.M. Hemsworth (Eds.)

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The six tokamak reactors used by ESECOM differ in respect mainly of the blanket, coolant and structural materials; two involve non-steam conversion cycles and the last assumes D - 3He fuel. The steam cycle tokamaks (and the two reverse field pinches) all assume values of total ß of 10%, and recirculating powers of 11-13%. 6 M W /m 2) are considered in the reverse field pinch cases. The variation of materials is taken into account systemati­ cally in both costs and environmental impact, whereas R.

2 x l < T 4 1 . 3 ESECOM case 1. 05 30 R. S. Pease / Safety and environmental issues of fusion The minimum inventory of a fusion reactor is repre­ sented by the tritium inventory, which is an inescapable feature of a D -T fusion reactor. Although the magni­ tude is uncertain for the reasons discussed above, it is many orders of magnitude less than the inescapable inventory of a PWR. It can be compared to the toxic content of the quantities of chlorine gas used industri­ ally [11]. Even if the volatile fission products (so-called groups I and II of ESECOM) alone are considered for the PWR - those that were released in the Chernobyl accident - the vulnerable tritium inventory foreseen for fusion reactors is four orders of magnitude less than fission.

Because the real price averaged over long times of fossil fuels has not varied greatly in real terms (Fig. 1), the EEF study group [5] assumed that these two tech­ nologies would continue to be viable throughout the 2 1 st century, and would provide the yardstick by which The EEF study assumed tokamak reactors only. The four are summarized in table 1 , and differ mainly in respect of assumed values of ß , of current drive, of material strength, and of steam cycle thermal conver­ sion efficiency.

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