By James D La Fleur
As most folks in Atlantic-era West Africa as in modern Europe and the Americas have been farmers, fields and gardens have been the first terrain the place they engaged the possibilities and demanding situations of nascent globalization. Agricultural alterations and culinary cross-currents from the Gold Coast point out that Africans engaged the Atlantic international now not with passivity yet as complete companions with others on continents whose histories have loved longer, and bigger, scholarly recognition. crucial seeds of swap aren't to be present in the DNA of plants and critters carried around the seas yet as an alternative within the creativity and innovation of the folk who engaged the demanding situations and possibilities of the Atlantic World."
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Additional info for Fusion Foodways of Africa’s Gold Coast in the Atlantic Era
5 They set fire to grasses thoroughly parched in the dry season to create pockets of hunting lands which attracted ruminant game when the rains returned and the grasses’ underlying roots sent up the new, tender, and nutritious shoots their prey favored. But fire-setting had to be carefully timed and controlled, because some of the foragers’ favored trees, including the Shea Butter tree (or the francophone karité, Butyrospermum paradoxum subsp. parkii), would not fruit if flames 5 James Fairhead and Melissa Leach, Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 46–47.
Despite increasingly sophisticated climate histories describing pluvial changes within the Holocene era, it remains terribly difficult to infer specific vegetational changes in local habitats with similar precision. Nor does it seem that foragers’ experiments were just a simple reflexive reaction to environmental change. Surmising the significance, if any, of specific climatic events and their inferred environmental impacts on the course of human history thus continues to offer ample opportunity for risky speculation.
A description of 38 chapter two rocks and roots that would make the tubers difficult to unearth intact and unscarred, and planted cuttings from a variety of their preferred types of improved yams. 62 With planting completed, garden cultivators then monitored and weeded their garden yams throughout the rains. 63 When the rains stopped and it was decided that yams were completely mature (some signs were completely visible, for example by checking the withering vine), they began to harvest their yams.