By Gerd Keiser
This e-book provides basic passive optical community (PON) suggestions, supplying you with the instruments had to comprehend, layout, and construct those new entry networks. The logical series of subject matters starts off with the underlying rules and elements of optical fiber verbal exchange applied sciences utilized in entry networks. subsequent, the publication progresses from descriptions of PON and fiber-to-the-X (FTTX) possible choices to their program to fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) networks and, finally, to crucial size and checking out techniques for community deploy and maintenance.An Instructor's guide offering special options to the entire difficulties within the publication is accessible from the Wiley editorial division.
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Additional info for FTTX Concepts and Applications (Wiley Series in Telecommunications and Signal Processing)
FURTHER READING 17 The other option is to run either one bidirectional or two unidirectional ﬁbers from the central oﬃce to an Ethernet switch located in the neighborhood of the subscribers. This network layout greatly reduces the number of ﬁbers interfacing to the central oﬃce, but now the use of an Ethernet switch requires electrical power in the outside cable plant. Also, in addition to the 32 optical transceivers used for links between the subscribers and the local Ethernet switch, either two or four more optical transceivers are needed for the link running between the central oﬃce and the switch.
5. Attenuation and amplification in a transmission path. 4 Examples of Optical Power Levels and Their dBm Equivalents Power dBm Equivalent 20 mW 10 mW 4 mW 2 mW 1 mW 500 μW 250 μW 100 μW 13 10 6 3 0 Ϫ3 Ϫ6 Ϫ10 Power dBm Equivalent 10 μW 1 μW 100 nW 10 nW 1 nW 100 pW 10 pW 1 pW Ϫ20 Ϫ30 Ϫ40 Ϫ50 Ϫ60 Ϫ70 Ϫ80 Ϫ90 An important rule-of-thumb relationship to remember for optical ﬁber communications is 0 dBm ϭ 1 mW. Therefore, positive values of dBm are greater than 1 mW and negative values are less than this.
Power at point 2 is half that at point 1. 5. Here the signal is attenuated by 14 dB between points 1 and 2. After getting a 15-dB boost from an ampliﬁer at point 3, it is again attenuated by 6 dB between points 3 and 4. Relative to point 1, the signal level in dB at point 4 is decibel level at point 4 ϭ (loss in line 1) ϩ (ampliﬁer gain) ϩ (loss in line 2) ϭ (Ϫ14 dB) ϩ (15 dB) ϩ (Ϫ6 dB) ϭ Ϫ5 dB Thus, the signal experiences a 5-dB loss in power when it travels from point 1 to point 4. 16. Since the decibel is used to refer to ratios or relative units, it gives no indication of the absolute power level.