By W. J. Clark
Stream size by means of Square-edged Orifice Plate utilizing nook Tappings offers comprehensively with the topic of stream size via pipes by way of a sq. area orifice plate utilizing nook tappings. the article is to give in simply readable and acceptable shape a attention of the entire many elements fascinated by actual size, hence allowing readers to understand what's fascinated by strong move metering perform, to layout if wanted their very own installations to predetermined criteria of accuracy, and to make trustworthy tests of present installations.
The ebook is equipped into 4 elements. half 1 discusses uncomplicated rules, authorized layout and install stipulations, and advised follow-up upkeep for numerous predetermined criteria of accuracy, with certain realization given to specifications excited by the metered fluid, operating stipulations, orifice layout, pipe format and pipe stipulations. half 2 bargains with the sensible software of half I and describes the tactic of utilizing a Flowmeter information Sheet specifically designed either to make sure that the varied components concerned about actual movement measurements are taken under consideration. half III contains a few consultant and well-detailed specimen calculations designed to demonstrate and make clear all points of the strategy of calculation encouraged partly II. partly IV a large amount of suitable information at the actual houses of fluids, and plenty of tables, graphs and alignment charts are assembled jointly for simple reference while making orifice calculations.
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Extra info for Flow Measurement. By Square-Edged Orifice Plate Using Corner Tappings
For guidance, Fig. 35 gives data on the physical properties of some sealing liquids. The values are approximate only, as they vary with different grades. (iii) Installation of Sealing Chambers Appendix 2 shows diagrammatically the general principles to bè followed in the installation of sealing chambers. S. 6 is used when the sealing liquid is heavier than the metered fluid, and is applicable when the metered fluid is a liquid or a gas. S. 10 is used when the metered fluid is a liquid and the sealing liquid is lighter than the metered liquid.
If this is inadequate, errors arise due to conduction away from the tip of the pocket to the wall of the pipe. Also, due to the fact that the thermometer is normally some distance from the orifice plate, radiation losses from the pipe can introduce errors. To minimise errors, the following practices are recommended: (i) The pocket should extend into the pipe for a distance not less than that specified for the type of measuring system used. ) Such an immersion should, in the case of a thermal element inserted at right-angles to the axis of the pipe, result in the whole of the sensitive portion of the thermal element lying within limits of 0-25D either side of the axis.
10. CORRECTION OF READINGS OF FLOW RATES AND OF INTEGRATED FLOWS Indicating and recording meters are fitted with scales or conversion tables giving the equivalent rate of flow for different scale readings, based on a * design' reference density, working tern- Flow Measurement 38 perature and working pressure. In practice actual conditions may be different from design conditions and alignment charts should be available to enable the necessary corrections to be made to meter readings. Where the integrated flow rate from a 24 hour chart is required, the average actual values of temperature, pressure, and density (or composition) under reference conditions, are in general taken and used in correcting the integrated square-root of the pressure-difference record.