By Chen Zhu
This publication discusses the applying of geochemical types to environmental perform and experiences, by utilizing quite a few case experiences of real-world environmental difficulties, reminiscent of acid mine drainage, pit lake chemistry, nuclear waste disposal, and landfill leachates. In every one instance the authors essentially outline the environmental danger in query; clarify how geochemical modeling may also help remedy the matter posed; and recommend the reader easy methods to arrange enter documents for geochemical modeling codes and interpret the consequences when it comes to assembly regulatory necessities.
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Additional info for ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF GEOCHEMICAL MODELING
Caveat Emptor Modelers should realize that activity coefficients are affected by all solution components, and that simple, all-inclusive equations such as those above, which rely on the ionic strength (I ) to work equally well for all compositions, cannot be expected to be very accurate. Moreover, the degree to which they are inaccurate in specific cases is usually not known. Undoubtedly, the situation is helped considerably by the fact that in equilibrium calculations the errors in calculated activity coefficients of products and reactants cancel one another to a large extent.
Therefore, this result is not very useful, except in the next step. 28) Thus the equilibrium constant can be calculated for any reaction for which we have standard state data for each product and reactant. Note that this does not necessarily mean that the reaction is important, or that it has reached equilibrium in our natural system, or perhaps any natural system: it tells us the ratio of product and reactant activities (≈ concentrations) if the reaction does reach equilibrium. 1 Direct and Indirect Determination of K values Determination of equilibrium constants from tables of Gibbs free energy values as described above is, in a sense, an indirect method, because the Gibbs energy values are themselves determined from other kinds of measurements, often calorimetric (measurements of quantities of heat involved in carefully controlled experiments).
3. Different levels of complexity of geochemical models. ξ refers to reaction progress variable (see below). After Raffensperger (1996). , 1992). Here we describe them only briefly. More detailed descriptions of models can be found in the above-mentioned reviews, the manuals for the geochemical modeling codes, and individual chapters for respective types of models in this book. 3). Speciation–solubility models contain no spatial or temporal information and are sometimes called zero-dimension models.