By David Bell, Jane Grimson
Allotted database platforms have now come of age with the statement of numerous advertisement items (Oracle, Ingres, Multi-Star) which meet the pressing want for integration of heterogeneous collections of information. This ebook adopts a realistic procedure, reviewing the basics of database expertise and advancements in facts communications (including criteria) ahead of reviewing the foundations of allotted DB structures. It comprises case experiences of the best items.
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Additional info for Distributed Database Systems
Where JOIN and UNION have the normal relational meaning. It must of course be possible to reconstitute a global relation from its fragments by the application of standard relational operators. In practice this means that the primary key of the relation R must be included in all vertical fragments. Thus both A and B, and C and D, must be joinable and (A JOIN B), (C JOIN D) and E all union compatible. A collection of materialized relations at some particular time is called a snapshot. The allocation schema then specifies, at which site each fragment is stored.
There is an international standard for SQL specified by ANSI. As with many standards, the 1986 SQL standard has been subjected to many criticisms and many RDBMSs offer additional features which are not part of the standard. Some of the commonly voiced criticisms of standard SQL include: "* No support for referential integrity (most RDBMSs now support this as an extension); "* No method for consistent handling of updates through views; "* No easy way of storing interim results of queries for subsequent processing - the only way to pass query results is through nesting of queries.
The important characteristic of these systems is that they have no global conceptual schema.