By Mark W. McClure, Roland N. Horne
Discrete Fracture community Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation describes the improvement and checking out of a version that fluid-flow, deformation, friction weakening, and permeability evolution in huge, advanced two-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The version can be utilized to discover the habit of hydraulic stimulation in settings the place matrix permeability is low and preexisting fractures play a massive function, reminiscent of greater Geothermal platforms and fuel shale. Used additionally to explain natural shear stimulation, mixed-mechanism stimulation, or natural opening-mode stimulation. quite a few novel recommendations to make sure potency and practical version habit are carried out, and demonstrated. The simulation method is additionally used as an effective strategy for without delay fixing quasistatic fracture touch difficulties. effects convey how stresses caused by means of fracture deformation in the course of stimulation at once impression the mechanism of propagation and the ensuing fracture network.
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Extra info for Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation: Coupling Flow and Geomechanics
Rate and state friction is significantly more intensive computationally than simulations using constant coefficient of friction. One reason rate and state friction models are so computationally intensive is that they are numerically unstable unless a very finely resolved spatial discretization is used (LaPusta 2001). Another reason is that rate and state friction requires a very large number of very short time steps in order to simulate seismic events accurately because frictional weakening is very non-linear.
Opening induces tensile stresses ahead of the crack tip, but these stresses are unable to open the elements ahead of the effective crack tip because of a poroelastic response. Because of the low compressibility of water (relative to the fractures) and conservation of mass, effective normal stress of an element must be nearly constant unless there is fluid flow into or out of the element (otherwise the void aperture and resulting mass content of an element would change, from Eqs. 24). Because of this effect, the tensile stresses induced ahead of the crack tip produce a reduction in fluid pressure that allows the effective normal stress to remain nearly constant and prevents opening.
Fractures are generated sequentially with an accept/reject algorithm. The total number of fractures in the network is specified by the user. Before identifying the locations of any of the fractures, a population of lengths and orientations is chosen according to prespecified statistical distributions. The locations of the fractures are then determined in order from largest fracture to smallest. For each fracture, a candidate location is identified, and certain checks are performed before ‘‘accepting’’ the candidate location.