By Richard R. Keen, Philip B. Dobrin
Improvement of Aortic Aneurysms is a quantity within the scientific Intelligence Unit sequence. It describes the molecular pathogenesis of aneurysms. The booklet has thirteen chapters and 15 members.
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Extra resources for Development of Aneurysms (Medical Intelligence Unit, 17)
Eur J Vasc Surg 1994; 8:595-601. 77. Hayashi K, Sato H, Handa H et al. Biomechanical study of the constitutive laws of vascular walls. Exp Mech 1974; 14:440-4. 78. Powell JT, Adamson J, MacSweeny STR et al. Genetic variants of collagen III and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eur J Vasc Surg 1991; 5:145-8. CHAPTER 4 Elastin, Collagen, and the Pathophysiology of Arterial Aneurysms Philip B. Dobrin T he formation of an arterial aneurysm is a classic example of mechanical failure of a cylindrical structure, in this case the arterial wall.
Upon removal of the stress the chains readily retract, resulting in a reversible elasticity. Heating elastomers increases their kinetic energy. This increases the entropy and remarkably results in shortening of the chains (Gough-Joule Effect). Rubber, the paragon of elastomeric behavior, actually does shorten when it is heated. However rubber differs from proteins in that rubber is formed by long hydrocarbon chains with few interchain bonds, whereas proteins usually possess many radicals capable of forming weak interchain bonds.
Wall mechanics are mainly determined by the collagen-to-elastin ratio, the relative thickness and architecture of the wall. Information as to sex-related differences in these or other biochemical or histological factors is not available for the abdominal aorta at the moment. However, it has been shown experimentally in animals that the collagen-to-elastin ratio in the aortic wall changes when animals are treated with different sex hormones. 53,54 If this is true for the human aorta as well, female sex hormones may increase aortic compliance and account for some of the sex-related differences in distensibility.